29 terms

Chapter 12: Social Psychology

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Asch effect
group majority influences an individual's judgment, even when that judgment is inaccurate
ageism
prejudice and discrimination toward individuals based solely on their age
altruism
humans' desire to help others even if the costs outweigh the benefits of helping
attribution
explanation for the behavior of other people
bystander effect
situation in which a witness or bystander does not volunteer to help a victim or person in distress
cognitive dissonance
psychological discomfort that arises from a conflict in a person's behaviors, attitudes, or beliefs that runs counter to one's positive self-perception
collectivist culture
culture that focuses on communal relationships with others such as family, friends, and community
confirmation bias
seeking out information that supports our stereotypes while ignoring information that is inconsistent with our stereotypes
companionate love
type of love consisting of intamacy and commitment, but not passion; associated with close friendships and family relationships
conformity
when individuals change their behavior to go along with the group even if they do not agree with the group
consummate love
type of love occurring when intimacy, passion, and commitment are all present
cyberbullying
repeated behavior that is intended to cause psychological or emotional harm to another person and takes place online
diffusion of responsibility
tendency for no one in a group to help because the responsibility to help is spread throughout the group
dispositionism
describes a perspective common to personality psychologists, which asserts that our behavior is determined by internal factors, such as personality traits and temperament
empathy
capacity to understand another person's perspective - to feel what he or she feels
group polarization
strengthening of the original group attitude after discussing views within the group
groupthink
group members modify their opinions to match what they believe is the group consensus
homophobia
prejudice and discrimination against individuals based solely on their sexual orientation
individualistic culture
culture that focuses on individual achievement and autonomy
in-group
group that we identify with or see ourselves belonging to
romantic love
type of love consisting of intimacy and passion, but no commitment
scapegoating
act of blaming an out-group when the in-group experiences frustration or is blocked from obtaining a goal.
self-fulfilling prophecy
a belief or expectation that helps to make itself true
sexism
prejudice, stereotyping, or discrimination, typically against women, on the basis of sex.
situationism
describes a perspective that behavior and actions are determined by the immediate environment and surroundings; a view promoted by social psychologists
social norm
the accepted beliefs about what we do or what we should do in particular social situations
social psychology
field of psychology that examines how people impact or affect each other, with particular focus on the power of the situation
social role
socially defined pattern of behavior that is expected of a person in a given setting or group
stereotype
negative beliefs about individuals based solely on their membership in a group, regardless of their individual characteristics