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Chapter 8


rod-shapes structures made of DNA and protein


DNA wraps around histones in eukaryotes to help maintain the compact structure of chromosomes

sex chromosomes

determine the sex of an organism


all of the other chromosmes in an organism

diploid cells

cells having two sets of chromosomes
ex: autosomes

haploid cells

cells having only one set of chromosomes
ex: sex chromosomes

cell division

the process by which cells reproduce themselves

binary fission

the process of cell division in prokaryotes

cell cycle

- the repeating set of events in the life of a cell
- consists of a cell division and interphase
- cell division includes mitosis and cytokenisis


consists of growth, DNA replication, and preparation for cell division


results in two offspring cells that are geneticall identical to the original cell


- in animal cells, a cleavage furrow pinches in and eventually separates the dividing cell into two cells
- in plant cells, a cell plate separates the dividing cells into two cells

when control of cell division is lost

cancer may result if the cells aren't able to respond to the control mechanisms


- chromosomes are copied # doubles
- chromosomes appear as threadlike coils (chromatin)
- chromosomes change to sister chromatids at the end of the phase


- centrioles appear and begin to move to opposit ends of cell
- spindle fibers form between the poles


- chromatid attach to the spindle fibers


- chromatids separate and begin to move to opposite ends of the cell


- two new nuclei form
- chromosomes appear as chromatin
- mitosis ends


-0 cell membrane moves inward to creat two daughter cells - each with its own nucleus with identical chromosomes


- process of nuclear division that reduces the number of chromosomes in new cells to half the number in the original cell
- leads to four haploid cells (gametes) rather than two diploid cells as in mitosis

crossing over

when portions of homologous chromosomes exchange genetics material, occurs during prophase 1 and results in genetic recombination


the process by which sperm cells are produces


the process that produces mature egg cells

sexual reproduction

the formation of offspring through meiosis and the union of a sperm and an egg

types of asexual reproduction

- budding
- fission
- fragmentation

homologous chromosomes

pairs of chromosomes that contain the same genes; crossing over between homologous chromosomes insures genetic variation within a species

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