US has more foreign-born residents than any other country: approximately 43 million as of 2010—growing by 1 million annually.
---Three main eras of immigration in the U.S.
>Colonial settlement in seventeenth (1600's and eighteenth centuries (1700's)
>First era was marked by immigration from Europe and Sub-Saharan Africa. Most from Africa were forced to migrate as slaves.
<<Mass European immigration (from N & W) in the late 19th (late 1800's) and early twentieth (1900's) centuries (from S & E)
<<Late 19th : Ireland- economic push factors
Germany- economic push factors & politcal unrest
Scandinavia (Swedes, Norwegians)- Industrial Revolution diffusion, rapid pop increase
<<Early 20th: (Italy, Russia, Austria-Hungary)-Industrial Revolution diffusion, rapid pop increase
>Asian and Latin American integration in the late Twentieth and early twenty-first centuries
> Leading Asian Sources : China, Phillipines, India, Vietnam
>In early 1990's, Immigration Reform and Control Act (issued visas without legal documents) lead to large number of immigrants from Latin America and Mexico
Entering Stage 2, rapid pop growth has limited prospects for economic advancement
Immigrants go to US for economic opportunity (and social advancements)
-Religious & political freedom
-Slavery- people shipped from sub-Saharan Africa to North America & Latin America (during 18th & 19th century)
-Religious, ethnic, or political persecution
Political factors can be especially compelling push factors, forcing people to migrate from a country.
---United Nations High Commission for Refugees recognizes three groups of forced political migrants.
>A refugee has been forced to migrate to avoid a potential threat to his or her life, and he or she cannot return for fear of persecution.
>An internally displaced person (IDP) is similar to a refugee, but he or she has not migrated across an international border.
>An asylum seeker is someone who has migrated to another country in hope of being recognized as a refugee.
Environmental: migration from hazardous environments or pull migrants to attractive regions.
EX. Colorado, Alps (in France)
EX. Coast of Florida, France, & Southern England for swimming and relaxing on the beach (esp, retirees)
EX. Elderly ppl to Florida, migrants to Southern Spain & southwest US to escape harsher climates
>>Water: most common environmental threat
>Flood (flood plain- land area subject to flooding during specific number of years)(near River)
Ex. Hundreds of thousands have been forced to move from the Sahel region of northern Africa because of drought conditions.
PUSH FACTOR: migrate away from places with few jobs
PULL FACTOR: migrate to places where jobs seem to be available
--U.S. and Canada have been prominent destinations for economic migrants.
>Historically individuals migrated from Europe.
>More recently Latin America and Asia are primary senders.
*Relative attractiveness of a region can shift with economic change. Migration rates have decreased since the onset of the 2008 recession in the U.S.*
**Note: Ravenstein's laws help geographers make generalizations about where and how far people move.
Most people migrate for economic reasons.
Political and environmental also induce migration but less often.**
--Immigrants take low-status and low-skill jobs that local won't accept.
Ex. In Berlin, Brussels, Paris, and Zurich, immigrants provide essential services, such as driving buses, collecting garbage, repairing streets, and washing dishes
--Migrant earn far more than they would at home (despite the low wage by European standards).
--By letting their people work else where:
>poorer countries reduce their own employment problems.
>Immigrants send a % of their income, this foreign money stimulates the home country's economy
--First guest worker program:
Southern Europe Countries (Italy, Portugal, Spain) to Germany and other wealthier Northern European countries
Turkey and North Africa replaced Southern European countries
Immigrants in search of jobs in Europe, from Eastern Europe (Poland & Romania)