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Psychology - Module 10
Terms in this set (24)
Operant Conditioning (Instrumental Conditioning) (Skinner)
Kind of learning in which an animal or human performs some behavior and the following consequence (reward or punishment) increases or decreases the chance that an animal or human will again perform that same behavior.
Behavioral disorder, often seen in individuals with mental retardation, that involves eating inedible objects or unhealthy substances. This can result in serious physical problems, including lead poisoning, intestinal blockage, and parasites.
Law of Effect (Thorndike)
States that behaviors followed by positive consequences are strengthened, while behaviors followed by negative consequences are weakened.
Operant Response (Skinner)
Response that can be modified by its consequences and is a meaningful unit of ongoing behavior that can be easily measured.
Procedure in which an experimenter successively reinforces behaviors that lead up to or approximate the desired behavior.
Refers to a child refusing to follow directions, carry out a request, or obey a command given by a parent or caregiver.
Consequence that occurs after a behavior and increases the chance that the behavior will occur again.
A consequence that occurs after a behavior and decreases the chance that the behavior will occur again.
Behavior that increases in frequency because its occurrence is accidentally paired with the delivery of a reinforcer.
Refers to the presentation of a stimulus that increases the likelihood that a response will occur again.
Stimulus that increases the likelihood that a response will occur again.
Refers to an aversive (unpleasant) stimulus whose removal increases the likelihood that the preceding response will occur again.
Stimulus such as food, water, or sex, that's innately satisfying and requires no learning on the part of the subject to become pleasurable.
Any stimulus that has acquired its reinforcing power through experience; secondary reinforcers are learned, such as being paired with primary reinforcers or other secondary reinforcers.
Ex: coupons, money, grades, and praise because their value is learned or acquired through experience.
Refers to presenting an aversive (unpleasant) stimulus after a response. The aversive stimulus decreases the chances that the response will recur.
Removes reinforcing stimuli after an undesirable response. This removal decreases the chance that the undesirable response will occur.
Refers to removing a reinforcing stimulus (a child's allowance) after a response. This removal decreases the chances that the response will recur.
Schedule of Reinforcement
Refers to a program rule that determines how and when the occurrence of a response will be followed by a reinforcer.
Reinforcer only occurs after a fixed # of responses are made by the subject.
Reinforcer occurs following the first response that occurs after a fixed interval of time.
Reinforcer is delivered after an average number of correct responses has occurred.
Reinforcer follows following the first correct response after an average amount of time has passed.
Means that an animal or person emits the same response to similar stimuli.
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