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63 terms

AP Psych- Cognition

STUDY
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Memory
Any indication that learning has persisted over time
Three Box (Information Processing) Model
Proposes the three stages that information passes through before it is stored. Sensory, Short Term, Long Term.
Sensory Memory
Split-second holding tank for incoming sensory information. Information is lost because it is not encoded.
Iconic Memory
A split-second photograph of a scene
Echoic memory
3-4 second memory for sounds
Short-term Memory
Working memory. Memories you are currently working with and are aware of in consciousness. Activated memory that holds a few items briefly, before information is stored or forgotten. Events encoded as visual codes, acoustic codes, or semantic codes (sense of meaning of event). Usually fade within 10-30 seconds. Limited to 7 items.
Selective Attention
We encode what we are attending to or what is more important to us. Determines which sensory messages get encoded.
Chunking
Process in which items are grouped together to facilitate memorization.
Mnemonic Devices
Memory aids. Example of chunking.
Rehearse
Repetition. A method of retaining information in the short-term memory.
Long-Term Memory
Permanent storage. Unlimited capacity. Possible for memories to decay or fade.
Episodic Memory
Memories of specific events. Stored in sequence.
Semantic Memory
General knowledge of the world, stored as facts, meanings, or categories
Procedural Memory
Memories of skills and how to perform them.
Explicit (Declarative) Memories
Conscious memories of facts or events we actively tried to remember
Implicit (Nondeclarative) Memories
Unintentional memories that we might not even realize we have.
Eidetic (Photographic) Memory
the ability to remember with great accuracy visual information on the basis of short-term exposure
Levels of Processing Model
Explains why we remember what we do by examining how deeply the memory was processed of thought about
Deeply (Elaboratively) Processed
Spending much time studying the context or info. More likely to remember the info for a long period of time
Shallowly (Maintenance) Processed
Ex. reciting a fact several times before a test quickly. Easily forgettable.
Retrieval
Getting information out of memory so we can use it
Recognition
Process of matching a current event or fact with one already in memory
Recall
Retrieving a memory with an external cue.
Primacy Effect
Predicts that we're more likely to recall items presented at the beginning of a list
Recency Effect
Demonstrated by our ability to recall the items at the end of a list
Serial Position Effect
When recall of a list is affected by the order of the items
Tip-of-the-tongue Phenomenon
Temporary inability to remember information.
Semantic Network Theory
Our brain might form new memories by connecting their meaning and context with meanings already in memory
Flashbulb Memory
Importance of the event caused us to encode the context surrounding the event
Mood-congruent Memory
Greater likelihood of recalling an item when our mood matched the mood we were in when the event happened
State-Dependent Memory
Phenomenon of recalling events encoded while in particular states of consciousness.
Recovered Memory
Individuals claim to suddenly remember events they have repressed for years
Constructed (reconstructed) memory
Can report false details of a real event or might even be a recollection of an event that never occurred
Relearning Effect
it will take less time to relearn material we previously encoded, even if we have "forgotten" what we learned previously
Interference
Other information in memory competes with what you're trying to recall.
Retroactive Interference
Learning new information interferes with the recall of older information
Proactive Interference
Older information learned previously interferes with the recall of information learned more recently
Anterograde Amnesia
Damage to the hippocampus. Cannot encode new memories.
Long-Term Potentiation
Neurons strengthen connections between each other. Through repeated firings, neuron becomes more sensitive to the messages from the sending neurons. Might be related to connections we make in our long term memory
Phonemes
Smallest unit of sound in a language.
Morpheme
Smallest unit of meaningful sound.
Syntax
Order of words spoken
Language Acquisition
natural unconscious process of language development in humans that occurs without instruction, but needs exposure
Holophrastic Stage
Time during which babies speak in single words
Telegraphic Stage
Toddlers combine words into simple commands
Overgeneralization
Misapplication of grammar rules
Language Acquisition Device
Born with this. Causes children learn language rapidly
Linguistic Relativity Hypothesis
Language might control and in some ways limit thinking
Concepts
Similar to schemata. Cognitive rules applied to stimuli from our environment that allow us to categorize and think about the objects, people, and ideas we encounter.
Prototypes
What we think is the most typical example of a particular concept
Images
Mental pictures we create in our minds from the outside world
Algorithm
Rule that guarantees the right solution by using a formula
Heuristic
Rule of thumb. Generally true that we can use to make a judgment about a situation
Availability Heuristic
Judging a situation based on examples of similar situations
Representativeness Heuristic
Judging a situation based on how similar the aspects are to prototypes the person holds in his or her hand
Belief Bias
Illogical conclusions in order to confirm preexisting beliefs
Belief perseverance
Tendency to maintain a belief even after evidence has been contradicted
Rigidity
Tendency to fall into established thought patterns
Functional Fixedness
Inability to see a new use for an object
Confirmation Bias
Tend to look for evidence that confirms our beliefs and ignore evidence that contradicts what we think is true
Framing
The way a problem is presented
Convergent thinking
Thinking pointed toward one solution
Divergent Thinking
Thinking that searches for multiple possible answers to a question. More closely associated with creativity.