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29 terms

Biology DNA and RNA

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What clues did bacterial transformation yield about the gene?
The nucleic acid DNA stores and transmits genetic information from one generation of bacteria to the next.
Transformation
(genetics) modification of a cell or bacterium by the uptake and incorporation of exogenous DNA
What role did bacterial viruses play in identifying genetic material?
DNA is the genetic material of all living things
Bacteriophage
a virus that infects bacteria
What is the role of DNA in heredity?
The DNA that makes up genes must be capable of storing, copying, and transmitting the genetic information in a cell.
What are the chemical components of DNA?
DNA is a nucleic acid made up of nucleotides joined into long strands or chains by covalent bonds
Base pairing
principle that bonds in DNA can form only between adenine and thymine and between guanine and cytosine
What role does DNA polymerase play in copying DNA?
DNA polymerase is an enzyme that joins individual nucleotides to produce a new strand of DNA
Replication
Before a cell divides, it duplicates its DNA in a copying process
DNA polymerase
the principal enzyme involved in DNA replication
Telomeres
DNA at the tips of chromosomes
How does DNA replication differ in prokaryotic cells and eukaryotic cells?
Replication in prokaryotic cells starts a single point and proceeds in two directions until all of the chromosome is copied. In eukaryotic cells, replication begins at a larger, varied amount of places on the DNA molecule, proceeding in both directions until each chromosome is all copied.
mRNA
The RNA that carry copies of the instructions
rRNA
Subunits of a Ribosome
tRNA
The molecule that transfers each amino acid to the ribosome as it is specified by the coded messages of mRNA
Transcription
Segments of DNA serve as templates to produce complementary RNA molecules
RNA polymerase
binds DNA during transcription and separates the DNA strands
Promoters
Regions of DNA that have specific base sequences
Introns
sequence of DNA that is not involved in coding for a protein
Exons
expressed sequence of DNA; codes for a protein
Polypeptides
Long chains of amino acids
Genetic code
the ordering of nucleotides in DNA molecules that carries the genetic information in living cells
Codon
three-nucleotide sequence on messenger RNA that codes for a single amino acid
Translation
The decoding of mRNA message into a protein
Anticodon
group of three bases on a tRNA molecule that are complementary to an mRNA codon
Mutations
heritable changes in genetic information
Point mutations
changes in a DNA sequence caused by substitution of one nucleotide for another
Frameshift mutations
Types of mutations that result from insertion or deletion of a single nucleotide into the normal DNA sequence.
Mutagens
A chemical or physical agent that interacts with DNA and causes a mutation.