aggressive nationalist movement that considered the nation more important than the individual and believed that order in society would come only through a dictator who led a strong gov't, very anticommunist
Benito Mussolini
-founded italy'd facist party
-exploited fears of communism in order to make facism seem safe and appealing.
-pledged to return italy to glory days of the roman empire
-with help of blackshirts (facist militia) he took over
Vladimir Lenin
-led communist party
-established communist gov'ts throughout the roman empire
-institute one party rule, suppressed individual liberties, and punished opponents
Joseph Stalin
-won struggle for power after lenin died
-new soviet dictator
-industrialized country
"five-year plans"
family farms were combined and turned into gov't owned farms
Adolf Hitler
-"nazi party"-german workers party
The Neutrality Acts
-neutrality act of 1935-made it illegal for americans to sell arms to any country in at war.
-2nd neutrality act-banning sale of arms to either side in a civil war
-neutrality act of 1937-continued the ban on selling arms to warring nations, but also required them to buy all non military supplies from the united states on a "cash and carry" basis...had to have their own ships go to pick up supplies and had to pay with cash
Axis Powers
Isolationism vs. Internationalism
internationalism-the idea that trade b/w nations creates prosperity and helps prevent war. while isolationism does not want any involvement with other nations in order to preserve safety
The Munich Conference
september 29, 1938-britain and france agreed to hitler's demands(appeasement) believed that if they gave him this they wouldn't bother him
-representatives of britain, france, and germany met to figure out czechloslavakias fate
made concessions in exchange for peace.
The Nazi-Soviet Pact
-nonaggression pact
-britain and france understood that this deal was made to free hitler for war against them and poland.
-contained secret deal to divide poland b/w germany and the soviet union
The Blitzkrieg
lightening war
The Fall of France
page 462
Maginot Line
french builta line of concrete bunkers and fortifications along the german border, french waited behind it for german approach, however it was disastrous because 1)it allowed germany to concentrate on poland first before facing the british and french, and 2) hitler decided to go around the maginot line which protected france's border with germany but not france's border with belgium.
Winston Churchill
new prime minister of great britain, spirited leader who delivered a defiant speech about how britain would never surrender
Battle of Britain
air battle
-german air force, the luftwaffe, began to attack british shipping on english channel. they launched an all out battle to destory the royal air force
The Holocaust
hitler used nuremburg laws, concentrations camps, the ss, and terror to discriminate against and kill many people, mainly jews
Concentration Camps
-camps built by hitler to either work the jews to death or kill them
Wannsee Conference
nazi leaders met to determine the final solution of the jewish question this is when concentration/extermination camps were created
The Lend-Lease Act
allowed the us to lend or lease arms to any country considered "vital to the defense of the united states"
Hemispheric Defense Zone
since roosevelt was unable to help protect british cargo ships because techniqually we were still neutral, he declared that the entire western half of the atlantic was part of the western hemisphere and therefore neutral
Atlantic Charter
an agreement committing the us and britain to a postwar world of democracy, nonaggression, free trade, and economic advancement and freedom of the seas
America's Embargo of Japan
us restricted the sale of strategic war materials. cause japan to get angry and join the axis powers
Blocking of Strategic materials
Pearl Harbor
japan attacks naval base on december 7, 1941 killed and injured many as well as destroyed a most of the us fleet
War Production Board
roosevelt gave them the authority to set priorities and production goals and to control the distribution of raw materials and supplies.
Building an Army
american industry goes all war and tanks are now being made instead of cars, liberty ships are being built, weapons are invented and sold,
Army Segregation
seperate troops for african americans, but they were still involved in war but usually not allowed in combat
Double V Campaign
african american newspaper campaign urging african americans to support the war to achieve a double victory-over both hitler's racism abroad and the racism at home
Tuskegee Airmen
pilots trained in tuskegee, alabama
-1st air force unit of african americans
Women's Army Corps
replaced womens army auxiliary corps and was now part of the army officially
Douglas MacArthur
general who commanded american and filipino forces defending the phillipines
Bataan Death March
tens of thousands of war prisoners forced to march to a japanese prison
James Doolittle
lieutenant colonel put in charge of mission to bomb tokyo
Battle of the Coral Sea
...pg 496
Battle of Midway
Battle for North Africa
Battle for the Atlantic
Battle of Stalingrad
Women's role in the defense Industry
Japanese Internment
keeping japanese citizens in camps to keep them from threatening the us during the war
limiting the purchase of certain items
Victory Gardens
grow your own food, so the farms can provide for the troops
Casablanca Conference
Tehran Conference
Operation Overlord
plan for d-day,
invasion of normandy beaches by the allies
Island-Hopping in the Pacific
MacArthur in the Pacific
japanese suicide fighter pilots
Battle of the Bulge
V-E Day
victory for the defeat of europe on may 8, 1945
Harry S. Truman
became president after roosevelt died, .........
Iwo Jima and Okinawa
Japanese terms of surrender
they keep their emperor
The Manhattan Project
making of the atomic bomb
Hiroshima and Nagasaki
cities the atomic bombs were dropped on
V-J Day
victory in japan when japan finally surrendured on august 15, 1945
Creation of the United Nations
Nuremberg Trials