Terms in this set (61)
What happened to Western Europe when Germanic invaders overran the western half of the Roman Empire
A series of changes happened that altered the economy, government and culture.
How was the economy of the Roman Empire altered by the Germanic invasions?
Disruption of trade
How was the Roman Empire's government changed after the Germanic invasions?
With the fall of the Roman Empire, cities were abandoned as centers of administration
What happened to the population after Germanic invaders overran the western half of the Roman Empire?
• As Roman centers of trade and government collapsed, nobles retreated to the rural areas.
• Roman cities were left without strong leadership.
• Other city dwellers also fled to the countryside, where they grew their own food.
• The population of western Europe became mostly rural.
Why was there a decline in learning after the Germans invaded western Europe?
• The Germanic invaders could not read or write. As more and more Romans left for rural areas their learning shrank.
• Few people other than priests and other church officials were literate.
• Knowledge of Greek was almost lost.
What happened to the language when the Germanic tribes invaded Western Europe?
• Latin was still the official language but as the German-speaking people mixed with the Roman population, Latin changed. People could no longer understand it. Different dialects developed as new words and phrases became part of everyday speech.
What happened with the Church during the upheaval of German kingdoms replacing Roman provinces?
• The Church as an institution survived the fall of the Roman Empire. The Church provided order and security.
How did the government change for the Roman people after the Germans took over?
• Romans were used to loyalty to their government and to written law.
• The Germans ran things differently. There were no written laws.
• They lived in small communities governed by unwritten rules and traditions.
Why did the Franks convert their faith to Christianity?
• Clovis, their leader, prayed before a battle. They won the battle and then asked the bishop to baptize him and 3,000 of his warriors.
How did the Church in Rome react to the Frank's conversion to Christianity?
• It welcomed them and supported their military campaigns against other Germanic peoples.
How did Christianity spread?
• Politics played a key role. The Church with the help of the Frankish rulers had converted many people. Missionaries also spread Christianity.
How did the Papal power expand under Gregory I?
• Under Gregory, the papacy became secular; his power became involved in politics.
• His palace was at the center of the Roman government.
• He used church revenues to build armies, repair roads, and help the poor.
• He also negotiated peace treaties with invaders.
How did Charles Martel save Western Europe from becoming part of the Muslim Empire?
• Although he was officially the mayor of the palace and was technically only in charge of the royal household and the estate, he unofficially led armies and made policy.
• He had more power than the king and basically ruled the kingdom.
• His defeat over the Muslim raiders from Spain at the Battle of Tours saved western Europe.
• He became a Christian hero.
worldly, power involved in politics
How did Charles Martel's son Pepin become king?
• On behalf of the Church Pepin agreed to fight the Lombards, who had invaded Italy and threatened Rome. In exchange, the pope anointed Pepin "king by the grace of god".
What did Pepin's becoming king mean for his family?
The beginning of the Carolingian Dynasty. His family would rule from 751-987
How did Charlemagne become king?
• After Pepin died in 768, he left the kingdom to his two sons, Carolman and Charles.
• Carolman died in 771
• Charles ruled the kingdom and was known as Charlemagne.
How did Charlemagne spread Christianity?
• As he conquered new lands he spread Christianity.
Treaty of Verdun:
Before Charlemagne died, he crowned his only surviving son, Louis the Pious, as emperor. Louis died and left three sons. The three sons fought for control of the empire. They finally agreed to divide the empire into three kingdoms
How did the Treaty of Verdun hurt the kingdom?
• It broke it up even further and became a battle ground for new invaders.
What were three roots of medieval culture in western Europe?
• The classical heritage of Rome
• the beliefs of the Roman Catholic Church
• the customs of various Germanic Tribes
What are three ways that civilization in western Europe declined after the Roman Empire fell?
• Disruption in trade
• downfall of cities
• population shifts
What was the most important achievement of Pope Gregory I?
• The papacy became secular, or worldly, power in politics.
• He broadened the pope's power beyond its spiritual role.
• He used church revenues to raise armies, repair roads, and help the poor.
How was the relationship between a Frankish king and the pope beneficial to both?
• Politics played a key role in spreading Christianity.
• With the help of the Frankish rulers, the Church had converted many Germanic peoples.
• Church revenues helped raise armies, repair roads and help the poor.
Why was Charles Martel's victory at the Battle of Tours so important for Christianity?
• If the Muslims had won, western Europe might have become part of the Muslim Empire.
What was Charlemagne's greatest achievement?
• The encouragement of learning, he surrounded himself with English, German, Italian, and Spanish scholars. He opened a palace school.
a political system in which nobles were granted the use of land that legally belonged to the king. In return, the nobles agreed to give their loyalty and military serviced to the king. Feudalism developed not only in Europe but also in countries like Japan.
How did the invasions of the Vikings, Magyars and Muslims affect development of Western Europe?
• It caused widespread disorder and suffering.
• Most western Europeans lived in constant danger.
• Kings couldn't defend their lands from invasions.
• People no longer looked to a central ruler for security. Instead, they turned to local rulers.
What groups invaded Europe in the 800s?
How were the Vikings different from earlier Germanic groups that invaded Europe?
• They carried out their raids with terrifying speed.
• They came in on ships and attacked before locals could mount a defense.
receiving person of land(fief) from the landowner(lord)
mounted horsemen who pledged to defend their lord's lands in exchange for fiefs(land).
people who could not legally leave the place where they were born. They were not slaves. Their lords could not buy or sell them. But what they produced belonged
Based on a set of rights and obligations between a lord and his serfs. The lord provided the serfs with housing, farmland, and protection from bandits. In return, serfs tended the lord's lands, cared for his animals and performed other tasks to maintain the estate.
What were the three groups of social classes?
• Nobles and Knights (those who fought)
• Men and Woman of the Church (those who prayed)
• peasants (those who worked)
What obligations did a peasant have to the lord of the manor?
• At least a few days labor each week and a certain portion of their grain.
What were two inventions from Asia that changed the technology of warfare in western Europe?
• The saddle and stirrups
Who were the occupants of a castle?
• Lord and lady, their family, knights and other men-at-arms, and servants made their home in the castle
What were some of the themes of medieval literature?
• Epic poetry, love poems and songs
How important of a role did knights play in the feudal system?
• Very important, they protected the castle and fought in local wars.
How was the code of chivalry like the idea of romantic love?
• Many stories idealized castle life. They glorified knighthood and chivalry. Songs and poems about a knight's undying love for a lady were also very popular.
In what ways were the lives of a noblewoman and a peasant woman the same?
heir lives were confined to activities in the home or convent.
In what ways were the lives of a noblewoman and a peasant woman different?
• Noblewomen had more power than peasant women.
Holy Roman Empire:
The German-Italian empire Otto created. It was first called the Roman Empire of the German Nation. Established in Europe in the 10th century. Originally consisting mainly of lands in what is now Germany and Italy.
What happened as the Church expanded its political role?
• Strong rulers began to question the pope's authority.
What did Pope Gelasius I suggest to solve such conflicts between the Church and the state?
• God had created two swords, one religious and one political. The pope held the spiritual one and the emperor held the political one.
• The pope should bow to emperor on political matters and the emperor should bow to pope in religious matters.
• They could share powers in harmony.
Even with Gelasius' suggestion on how to share power, what happened during the Middle Ages between the church and the state?
• The church and various European rulers competed for power.
What was a major change in technology that helped warriors in battle?
• Leather saddles and stirrups.
• The saddle kept a warrior firmly seated and the stirrups enabled him to ride and handle heavier weapons.
What did the Code of Chivalry demand that a knight do?
• Fight bravely in defense of three masters - his earthly feudal lord, his heavenly Lord, and his chosen lady.
• He was also to protect the weak and poor.
• He was to be loyal, brave, and courteous.
How did literature describe chivalry?
• It downplayed the brutality.
• Many stories idealized castle life.
• Songs and poems were also very popular.
What was the law of the Church called?
• Canon Law
What did Canon Law control?
• Marriage and religious practices
What happened if someone violated Canon Laws?
• The Church established courts to try people.
• Two of the harshest punishments were excommunication and interdict.
• Excommunication meant banishment from the Church.
• Under interdict, many sacraments and religious services could not be performed in the king's lands.
How did Otto the Great make the crown stronger than the German
• He formed a close alliance with the Church.
Why did lay investiture cause a struggle between kings and popes?
• The Church reformers felt that kings should not have power in naming bishops, who were very influential clergy that kings sought to control.
How was the structure of the Church like that of the feudal system?
• It had its own organization.
• Power was based on status.
• The structure consists of different ranks of clergy or religious officials.
Was the Concordat of Worms a fair compromise for both the emperor and the Church?
• It was a good compromise at the time but it favored the emperor.
• The Church could appoint a bishop but the emperor had power to veto.
Why did German kings fail to unite their lands?
• The wars with Italian cities and clashes with the pope.
• Another reason was that the system of German princes electing the king weakened royal authority.