This is an internal record or representation of some prior event or experience.
The organization and shaping of information during processing, storage, and retrieval of memories is called _____.
With regard to memory, the process of retaining neurally coded information over time is known as _____.
The three steps in memory processing are _____.
encoding, storage, retrieval
_______ attention improves encoding whereas ______ attention interferes with encoding.
In a computer model of memory, _____ would happen at the keyboard, _____ on the monitor, and _____ on the hard drive.
encoding, retrieval, storage
The _____ approach suggests that memory results from connections among multiple simultaneous networks.
parallel distributed processing
In the three-stage memory model, which of the following is the CORRECT memory pathway? A. sensory memory - STM - LTM B. STM - LTM - perceptual memory C. sensory memory - perceptual memory - working memory D. sensory memory - STM - LTM - perceptual memory
A. sensory memory - STM - LTM
In sensory memory, the approximate duration of a visual image is about _____, and the approximate duration of auditory echoic memory is up to _____.
1/2 second; 2-4 seconds
The memory system that stores sensory information while it "decides" whether to send it on to LTM is called _____ memory in the traditional memory model.
The process of repeating information over and over to maintain it in short-term memory is called _____.
Short-term memory receives information from _____ memory.
sensory and long-term
Of the three memory stages, _____ has the greatest capacity, and _____ has the longest duration.
long-term memory; LTM
The two major systems of long-term memory are _____.
explicit and implicit
This is the subsystem within long-term memory that consciously stores facts, information, and personal life experiences
Knowledge of facts and the relationships between them is called _____ memory, whereas knowledge of events is called _____ memory.
When you blow dry your hair in the morning, you are using _____.
According to the serial position effect, to increase the chance that you will be remembered by your host when introduced at a crowded party, you should try to be introduced _____.
either first or last
Ebbinghaus found that he could remember _____ percent of a list of nonsense syllables an hour after learning the list perfectly, _____ percent a day later, and _____ percent a week later.
44; 35; 21
Relearning is the process of learning material _____, which usually takes _____ time than original learning.
a second time; less
_____ theory suggests that memory is like any other biological process that deteriorates over time.
_____ theory suggests that forgetting is due to a momentary inability to recall permanently stored information due to interference, faulty cues, or emotional states.
_____ interference occurs when new information interferes with the recall of old information.
Distributed practice is a learning technique in which _____.
learning sessions alternate with non-learning rest periods
Cramming is another term for _____, which is an inefficient form of studying.
Long-term potentiation is a result of _____. A. repeated practice that builds neural pathways B. an increase in the number of dendrite connections with other neurons C. an increase in the release of neurotransmitters D. all of these options
D. all of these options
Research on humans and lab animals suggests that injections of _____ and stimulation of _____ increases the encoding and storage of new information.
epinephrine and cortisol; the amygdala
This is a vivid memory of circumstances associated with strongly emotional or surprise events that triggers hormone release.
The leading cause of neurological disorders (including memory loss) among Americans between the ages of 15 and 25 is ________.
traumatic brain injury
Loss of memory as a result of brain injury or trauma is called _____.
Loss of memory for events before an injury is called _____ amnesia.
Anterograde amnesia is the inability to _____ after an injury.
form new memories
A progressive mental deterioration characterized by severe memory loss that occurs most commonly in the elderly is called _____.
June-bug has Alzheimer's disease. Which of the following is she MOST likely to forget? A. why her sisters added the "bug" to her name when they were kids B. how to tie her shoes C. how to shift gears in her Mercedes D. all of these options
why her sisters added the "bug" to her name when they were kids
Your textbook author summarizes specific study tips compiled from memory research. These tips include all the following EXCEPT _____. A. reduce interference B. employ massed practice C. use mnemonics D. review information by sometimes starting in the middle sections of a chapter