Intravesical instillation of BCG commonly causes hematuria. Other common adverse effects of BCG include urinary frequency and dysuria. Less commonly, BCG causes cystitis, urinary urgency, urinary incontinence, urinary tract infection, abdominal cramps or pain, decreased bladder capacity, tissue in urine, local infection, renal toxicity, and genital pain. BCG isn't associated with renal calculi, delayed ejaculation, or impotence.
A) Acute glomerulonephritis
Acute glomerulonephritis is also associated with varicella zoster virus, hepatitis B, and Epstein-Barr virus. Acute renal failure is associated with hypoperfusion to the kidney, parenchymal damage to the glomeruli or tubules, and obstruction at a point distal to the kidney. Chronic renal failure may be caused by systemic disease, hereditary lesions, medications, toxic agents, infections, and medications. Nephrotic syndrome is caused by disorders such as chronic glomerulonephritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, multiple myeloma, and renal vein thrombosis.
B) 135 mEq/L
Normal serum concentration level ranges from 135 to 145 mEq/L. When the level dips below 135 mEq/L, there is hyponatremia. Manifestations of hyponatremia include mental confusion, muscular weakness, anorexia, restlessness, elevated body temperature, tachycardia, nausea, vomiting, and personality changes. Convulsions or coma can occur if the deficit is severe. Values of 140, 142, and 145 mEq/L are within the normal range.
Which set of arterial blood gas (ABG) results requires further investigation?
a) pH 7.35, PaCO2 40 mm Hg, PaO2 91 mm Hg, and HCO3- 22 mEq/L
b) pH 7.44, PaCO2 43 mm Hg, PaO2 99 mm Hg, and HCO3- 26 mEq/L
c) pH 7.49, PaCO2 30 mm Hg, PaO2 89 mm Hg, and HCO3- 18 mEq/L
d) pH 7.38, partial pressure of arterial carbon dioxide (PaCO2) 36 mm Hg, partial pressure of arterial oxygen (PaO2) 95 mm Hg, bicarbonate (HCO3-) 24 mEq/L
A 64-year-old client is brought in to the clinic with thirsty, dry, sticky mucous membranes, decreased urine output, fever, a rough tongue, and lethargy. Serum sodium level is above 145 mEq/L. Should the nurse start salt tablets when caring for this client?
a) No, start with the sodium chloride IV.
b) No, sodium intake should be restricted.
c) Yes, this will correct the sodium deficit.
d) Yes, along with the hypotonic IV.
C) Muscle weakness
Muscle weakness, bradycardia, nausea, diarrhea, and paresthesia of the hands, feet, tongue, and face are findings associated with hyperkalemia, which is transient and results from transient hypoaldosteronism when the adenoma is removed. Tremors, diaphoresis, and constipation aren't seen in hyperkalemia.