30 terms

2017 Unit 4 AoS 1 - Chapter 11 - Determining relatedness between species

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BMP4 gene
The gene that regulates the development if cartliage and muscular cell development in the jaws of a cichlid fish
Branch
Line on a phylogenetic tree that represents the evolutionary path from a common ancestor
Mutation rate
The rate at which genetic mutations occur over time.
Cladogram
A branching diagram representing the evolutionary realationships between taxa. The branches of a cladogram are scaled.
Conservative substitution
A change in the nucleotide sequence DNA or RNA that leads to the replacement of one amino acid with a functionally similar one, and having little or no impact on the protein sysnthesised.
Gene probe
A section of DNA with a base sequence complementary to a particular gene, to which it base pairs. When labelled with a fluroescent dye or radioactive marker, it is used to find a particular DNA sequence within a DNA fragment.
Outgroup
A taxonomic group that is closely related to the other groups but less closely related than any single one of the ingroups is to each other.
Phylogenetics
The study of the evolutionary history and relationships of groups of organisms.
Phylogeny
Evolutionary relationships of organisms, usually represented by a branching tree diagram.
Phylogram
A branching diagram representing the evolutionary relationships between taxa.
Polytomy
A node in a phylogenetic tree that indicates three or more lineages evolving from a common ancestor.
Root
The root of a phylogenetic tree represents the common ancestor of all the taxa in the tree.
Phylogenetic tree
A diagram that represents the evolutionary relationships between different species, but does not show evolutionary distance.
Non-conservative substitution
A change in the nucleotide sequence of DNA or RNA that leads to the replacement of one amino acid with a functionally different one, resulting in biochemical changes.
Node
The point at which two branches in a phylogenetic tree diverge.
Clade
A group of organisms that includes an ancestor and all descendants of that ancestor
Maximum Parsimony
A method for constructing the simplest possible phylogenetic tree to explain evolutionary relationships.
Molecular clock
The estimated rate of mutation in a region of DNA. It is used to estimate the rate of evolutionary change.
Semi-conservative substitution
A change in the nucleotide sequence of DNA or RNA that leads to the replacement of one amino acid with one that is similar in structure but has different biochemical properties.
Sister taxa
A pair of taxa grouped together in a phylogenetic tree.
Taxon
A biological group classified on the basis of their shared characteristics and evolutionary relationships.
Taxonomy
The science of the classification of organisms into hierarchical groupings based on their shared characteristics and evolutionary relationships.
Heterochrony
Refers to changes by a master gene in the rate or timing of a genes expression during embryonic development
Hometoic gene
A gene that determines the type or location of a body part during an organism's development
Hox genes
A subset of homeotic genes master regulatory genes that control the arrangment of body structures during embryonic development
Hybridised
A double stranded DNA molecule formed from two strands of DNA that are from different species.
Leaf
The branch tip on a phylogenetic tree where the scientific name of the taxon is
Lineage
All the species that are descendants of a common ancestor
Linnaean system of classification
A hierarchical system of classifiying organsims that is aimed at reflecting their relationships
Master regulatory gene
A gene that controls the expression of tow or more other genes in the development of an embryo