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20 terms

Unit 4: Chapter 16 - Human intervention in evolution

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Stem cells
Immature, unspecialized or undifferentiated cells with the potential to develop into almost any type of cell.
artificial insemination
Injecting semen into the uterus by artificial means - useful in breeding livestock.
artificial pollination
Pollination by human intervention, useful in plant breeding for specific characteristics.
artificial selection
Selection by humans for breeding of useful or desirable traits from the natural variation among different organisms
cloned gene
A gene of interest is located and copied (cloned) out of DNA extracted from an organism
cloning
Making a genetically identical copy of DNA or of an organism.
embryo splitting
When an early embryo is split up into separate cells, each of which is allowed to grow into a new embryo.
embryo transfer
A reproductive technique where embryos are collected from donors and placed in recipients
embryonic stem cells
An undifferentiated cell, taken from an embryo that has potential to give rise to various other cell or tissue types
enucleated
removal of the nucleus from the cell
fecundity
Ability to produce offspring, fruitfulness or fertility
gene therapy
The insertion of working copies of a gene into the cells of a person with a genetic disorder in an attempt to correct the disorder
genetic engineering
The technology of manipulating genes for practical purposes - deliberately changing the DNA of an organism
genetic screening
process of testing DNA to determine the chance a person has, or might pass on, a specific genetic characteristic
Genetically Modified Organisms (GMO)
Organisms that have their genes altered in a laboratory for specific purposes, such as disease resistance, increased productivity, or nutritional value allowing growers greater control, predictability, and efficiency.
In-vitro fertilization (IVF)
When the sperm and ovum are combined outside of the body, literally 'in glass'.
multipotent
cell with limited potential to develop into many types of differentiated cells; from the Latin meaning "many powers and abilities"
pluripotent
Cells that are capable of developing into most, but not all, of the body's cell types
therapeutic cloning
the process of taking undifferentiated embryonic (stem) cells for use in medical research.
vectors
A piece of DNA, usually a plasmid or a viral genome, that is used to move genes from one cell to another.

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