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Scientists predict weather using

weather instruments

Weather instruments

Thermometer, Anemometer, Wind vane, hygrometer, barometer, rain gauge


measures temperature in degrees


measures wind speeds

Wind vane

measures directions the wind is blowing

Change in wind direction on wind vane means

change in weather


measures the humidity in the air


measures air pressure

Rain gauge

measures the amount of rainfall


used to study the movement of storms

Weather balloons

collect data on temperature, air pressure and humidity


looks inside clouds

Air masses

are several miles thick and 1,000 miles across

Temperature & humidity

about the same throughout an air mass

Neighboring air mass

may have a different temperature, humidity and weather

Cold air masses

form in cold air regions

Warm air masses

form in warm regions

Location of air masses

some over land and some over water

Masses over land

are usually dry

Masses over water

are usually humid


where two air masses meet

Cold front

the edge of a moving mass of cooler air

Warm front

the edge of a moving mass of warm air

Warmer temperatures

are brought by a warm front

When a fast moving warm air mass meets a cold air mass

the lighter warm air mass rides up over the heavier cold air


form when the warm air rises and cools and the water vapor condenses

Thicker lower clouds

can cause light rain that lasts for hours or days

Cooler temperatures

are brought by a cold front

Cold front forms

where a faster moving cold air mass meets a warm air mass.

Faster heavier cold air

plows under the warm air and it pushes the warm air up sharply

Water vapor

condenses to form clouds

Severe weather

from cold front, can include tornadoes

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