Quarter 3 Benchmark Review

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abolitionism
movement to end slavery
amend
the process of changing the Constitution
Anti-Federalists
People who opposed ratification of the Constitution. They did not support the new Constitution because they feared the federal/national government would abuse its power over the states.
Battle of the Alamo
1836 battle between Texans and Mexican Army
California Gold Rush
1849, migration of people to the area after gold was discovered
cash crop
a crop grown to be sold rather than used by the farmer
charter
a contract given to someone to establish a colony
checks and balances
each of the three branches of government limits the power of the others
Constitutional Convention
meeting of delegates in 1787 to revise the Articles of Confederation, which produced the new U.S. Constitution
cotton gin
1795 invention by Eli Whitney that made processing cotton much easier; led to an increase in cotton production and an increase in the slave population
Democratic-Republicans
Led by Thomas Jefferson, believed people should have political power, favored strong STATE governments, emphasized agriculture, strict interpretation of the Constitution, pro-French, opposed National Bank
nullification
idea that states had the right to reject any law passed by Congress
due process of law
everyone is entitled to be treated equally under the law
Executive Branch
the branch of government, headed by the president, that carries out the nation's laws and policies
federalism
a system of sharing power between the states and national government
Federalists
Supporters of the Constitution that were led by Alexander Hamilton and John Adams. They firmly believed the national government should be strong. They didn't want the Bill of Rights because they felt citizens' rights were already well protected by the Constitution.
foreign policy
a nations overall plan for dealing with other nations
First Great Awakening
Was a time of religious fervor during the 1730s and 1740s. The movement arose in reaction to the rise of skepticism and the waning of religious faith brought about by the Enlightenment. Protestant ministers held revivals throughout the English colonies in America, stressing the need for individuals to repent and urging a personal understanding of truth.
Second Great Awakening
A second religious fervor in the 1820s that swept the nation. It converted more than the first. It also had an effect on moral movements such as prison reform, the temperance movement, and moral reasoning against slavery.
Great Compromise
A compromise reached between large and small states during the constitutional convention that created the House of Representative and Senate. The number of representatives in the House is based on population (proportional) and in the Senate each state has two Senators.
indentured servant
someone who agreed to work for an employer in exchange for passage to the New World
individual rights
personal liberties guaranteed by the Bill of Rights
Jacksonian Democracy
This term describes the presidency of Andrew Jackson. The idea that more political power should be given to the "Common Man" by extending the right to vote and participate in government.
Judicial Branch
the branch of government, including the federal court system, that interprets the nation's laws
Legislative Branch
the House of Representatives and the Senate; the branch that makes the laws
limited government
everyone, even elected officials, must obey the laws
Louisiana Purchase
treaty with France in 1803 that allowed the United States to acquire vast extent of land
Manifest Destiny
the belief that the United States was destined to stretch across the continent from the Atlantic Ocean to the Pacific Ocean
Mayflower Compact
1620 - The first agreement for self-government in America. It was signed by the 41 men on the Mayflower and set up a government for the Plymouth colony.
Mexican Cession
land that Mexico ceded to the United States after the Mexican War through the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo; included in what is now California, Nevada, and Utah; most of Arizona and New Mexico and parts of Colorado, Texdas, and Wyoming
Mexican-American War
war between United States and Mexico that started over a border dispute in Texas (1846 - 1848)
Oregon Trail
pioneer trail that began in missouri and crossed the great plains into the oregon country
patriot
someone who supported the American Revolution
plantation
large farm that raises cash crops
political party
A group of individuals with broad common interests who organize to nominate candidates for office, win elections, conduct government, and determine public policy.
popular sovereignty
government in which the people have the power; people express their power through voting
ratification
the process of approving the Constitution
republic
a form of government in which citizens elect representatives to represent (speak or act) for them in government
Seneca Falls Convention
1848 women's rights meeting
separation of powers
the division of power among the legislative, executive, and judicial branches of government
Shays's Rebellion
1787 uprising of farmers in Massachusetts. Farmers attacked and closed court houses trying to prevent the government from taking their property. People feared similar rebellions would spread throughout the nation and started calling for a constitutional convention to revise the Articles of Confederation.
slavery
a person was owned by another person in order to control their labor
suffrage
right to vote
tariff/tax
fees charged on an economic activity
Three-fifths Compromise
An agreement reached between slave and non-slave states at the constitutional Convention that 3/5 of the slaves in any state be counted in its population.
Trail of Tears
forced movement of Cherokee Indians in 1838-1839 form their lands in the east to the west
transcendentalism
philosophy that believed in the goodness of humans and which valued experience and intuition above reason and logic; it encouraged people to question what was "expected" of people in society and it led to reform movement to improve society
unalienable rights
right that the government cannot take away; stated in the Declaration of Independence. "the right to life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness"
unconstitutional
law that is forbidden by the Constitution
Underground Railroad
series of escape routes fro runaway slaves
War of 1812
War between the U.S. and Great Britain that resulted from Britain's support of Indian hostilities along the frontier and impressment of American sailors into the British army. The war ended in 1814 with the Treaty of Ghent and a renewed sense of American nationalism.
Whiskey Rebellion
a protest caused by tax on liquor; it tested the will of the government, Washington's quick response showed the government's strength and willingness to enforce federal laws
Suffrage Movement
movement dedicated to achieving women's right to vote
first amendment
The constitutional amendment that establishes the four great liberties: freedom of the press, of speech, of religion, and of assembly.
fourth amendment
Protects Americans against unreasonable searches and seizures. No soldier, Gov agent, or police can search your home without a search warrant.
fifth amendment
the constitutional amendment designed to protect the rights of persons accused of crimes, including protection against double jeopardy, self-incrimination, and punishment without the due process of law.
sixth amendment
the constitutional amendment designed to protect individuals accused of crimes. It includes the right to counsel, the right to confront witnesses, and the right to a speedy and public trial.
eighth amendment
the constitutional amendment that forbids cruel and unusual punishment, although it does not define this phrase. Through the fourteenth amendment, this bill of rights provision applies to the states.
ninth amendment
makes clear that the rights spelled in Constitution are not the only rights for Americans
tenth amendment
The Constitutional amendment stating that "The powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution, nor prohibited by it to the states, are reserved to the states respectively, or to the people."