837 terms

Board Study Guide

Esthetics - Milady
STUDY
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advertising
promotional efforts that are paid for and are directly intended to increase business.
client record keeping
a method of taking personal notes that helps the esthetician to remember important data and serve client needs better.
closing consultation
an opportunity at the end of a treatment session to review product recommendations, prepare a home-care program for the client to follow, and provide any additional literature on other treatment options that the client may be interested in.
consultative selling
a method of advising or consulting to clients and recommending the best treatments and products for their use.
marketing
a strategy for how goods and services are bought, sold, or exchanged.
promotion
the process of getting the consumer's attention, with the goal of increasing business.
questionnaire
form that provides the esthetician with a complete client profile, including important information about a client's skin care habits and health.
quota
a method for gauging the amount of sales and targeting production levels.
retailing
the act of recommending and selling products to clients for at-home use.
upselling services
the practice of recommending or selling additional services to clients that may be performed by you or other practitioners in the salon.
booth rental
an arrangement in which the esthetician is required to pay the owner a set rental fee, along with payment of utilities as agreed upon, to operate in a specific space within the owner's establishment.
business plan
a strategy for understanding key elements in developing business; also servces as a guide to making informed business decisions.
capital
the money needed to start a business.
consumption supplies
items used to conduct daily business operations.
corporation
form of business ownership whereby one or more stockholders share ownership; it is considered an independent legal entity separate and distinct from its owners with its own rights, privileges, and liabilities.
demographics
the particular identifying characteristics of an area or population, such as the specific size, age, sex, or ethnicity of its residents; average income; and buying habits.
employee manual
a handbook or guide for employees; contains important general information about salon operations, such as the number of sick days or vacation time allowed, holiday closings, how to call in late or sick, and the appropriate dress code for estheticians.
fixed costs
those operating costs that are constant; for example, rent and loan payments.
job descriptions
specified list of duties and responsibilities that are required of an employee in the performance of his or her job.
partnership
form of business ownership in which two or more people share ownership, although this does not necessarily mean an equal arrangement. In this, each partner assumes the other's unlimited liability for debt. Profits are shared.
personnel
employees; staff.
procedural guide
manual or set of instructions designed to standardize operations; supplies specific protocols for conducting individual services, such as the expected method for performing a glycolic or microdermabrasion treatment.
profit
amount of money available after all expenses are subtracted from all revenues.
public relations
the planning and developing of relationships to achieve a certain desired behavior.
retail supplies
items available for sale to clients.
revenue
income generated from selling services and products, or money taken in.
sole proprietorship
form of business ownership in which an individual acts as sole owner and manager and is responsible for determining all policies and making all of the necessary decisions associated with running a business.
variable costs
business expenses that fluctuate, such as utilities, supplies, and advertising.
commission
a method of compensation that is percentage-based and is directly related to the employee's performance; for example, the employee earns a certain percentage of whatever services he or she performs and/or a certain percentage of the amount of product he or she sells.
deductive reasoning
the process of reaching logical conclusions by employing logical reasoning.
franchised salon or spa
a salon or spa owned by an individual(s) who pays a certain fee to use the company name and is part of a larger organization or chain of salons. It operates according to a specified business plan and set protocols.
information interview
a scheduled meeting or conversation whose sole purpose is to gather information.
job description
specified list of duties and responsibilities that are required of an employee in the performance of his or her job.
networking
a method of increasing contacts and building relationships to further one's career.
quota
a method for gauging the amount of sales and targeting production levels.
resume
a summary of education and work experience that highlights relevant accomplishments and achievements.
role model
a person whose behavior and success are worthy of emulation.
salary
a method of compensation that specifies a certain amount of pay based on either a flat or hourly rate.
test-wise
refers to a student who begins to prepare for taking a test by practicing good study habits and time management as part of an effective study program.
transferable skills
those abilities, such as sales training or administrative skills, that were mastered at other jobs and can be applied to a new position.
abdominoplasty
procedure that removes excessive fat deposits and loose skin from the abdomen to tuck and tighten the area.
ayurvedic
Indian philosophy of balancing life and the body through various methods ranging from massage to eating habits. It is based on three doshas, or mind and body types.
balneotherapy
body treatments that use mud or fango, dead sea salt, seaweed, enzymes, or peat baths.
blepharoplasty
an eye lift. It removes the fat and skin from the upper and lower lids.
body masks
remineralize and detoxify the body using clay, mud, gel, or seaweed mixtures.
body scrubs
use of friction to exfoliate, hydrate, increase circulation and nourish the skin.
body wraps
remineralize, hydrate, stimulate, or promote relaxation by using aloe, gels, lotions, oils, seaweed, herbs, clay or mud.
Botox
neuromuscular-blocking serum (botulinum toxin) that paralyzes nerve cells on the muscle when this serum is injected into it.
cell renewal factor
cell turnover rate.
cellulite
gel-like lumps of fat, water, and residues of toxic substances beneath the skin, usually around the hips and thighs of overweight people.
cosmetic surgery
elective surgery for improving and altering the appearance.
dermabrasion
a medical procedure; strong exfoliation method using a mechanical brush to physically remove tissue down to the dermis.
dermal fillers
products used to fill lines, wrinkles, and other facial imperfections.
endermology
a treatment for cellulite.
foot reflexology
treatment of the body through reflex points located on the bottom of the feet.
hydrotherapy
spa treatments that use water.
injectable fillers
substances used in nonsurgical procedures to fill in or plump areas of the skin. Botox and dermal fillers are some.
Jessner's peel
a light to medium peel of lactic acid, salicylic acid, and resorcinol in an ethanol solvent.
laser resurfacing
procedure used to smooth wrinkles or lighten acne scars. Collagen remodeling stimulates growth of new collagen in the dermis.
lasers
light amplication stimulation emission of radiation; medical devices using electromagnetic radiation for hair removal and skin treatments.
light therapy
the application of light rays to the skin for the treatment of wrinkles, capillaries, pigmentation, or hair removal.
liposuction
procedure that surgically removes pockets of fat.
mammoplasty
breast surgery.
manual lymph drainage
stimulates lymph fluid to flow through the lymphatic vessels. This light massage technique helps to cleanse and detoxify the body.
microcurrent
a device that mimics the body's natural electrical energy to reeducate and tone facial muscles; improves circulation and increases collagen and elastin production.
microdermabrasion
a form of mechanical exfoliation.
nonablative
procedure that does not remove tissue; wrinkle treatments that bypass the epidermis to stimulate collagen in the dermis for wrinkle reduction are nonablative.
phenol
carbolic acid; a caustic poison; used for peels and to sanitize metallic implements.
reconstructive surgery
defined as "restoring a bodily function." It is necessary surgery for accident survivors and those with congenital disfigurements or other diseases.
rhinoplasty
nose surgery that makes a nose smaller or changes its appearance.
rhytidectomy
a face lift. This removes excess fat at the jawline, tightens loose, atrophic muscles, and removes sagging skin.
sclerotherapy
minimizes varicose veins (dilated blood vessels) and other varicosities by injecting chemical agents into the affected areas or by laser treatments.
stone massage
the use of hot and cold stones in massage or in other treatments.
transconjunctival blepharoplasty
procedure performed inside the lower eyelid to remove bulging fat pads, which are often congenital.
trichloroacetic acid peels
a strong peel used to diminish sun damage and wrinkles.
actinic
damage or condition caused by sun exposure.
AHAs
acids used to exfoliate the skin
alipidic
lack of oil.
contraindications
a factor that prohibits a treatment due to a condition; treatments could cause harmful or negative side effects to those who have specific medical or skin conditions.
couperose skin
redness; distended capillaries from weakening of the capillary walls.
dehydration
lack of water.
Fitzpatrick Scale
a scale used to measure the skin type's ability to tolerate sun exposure.
keratoses
abnormally thick buildups of cells.
melanosome
pigment granules of melanocyte cells that produce melanin in the basal layer.
occlusive
products that reduce transepidermal water loss to help hold in moisture and protect the skin's top barrier layer.
peptides
chains of amino acids; used to treat wrinkles and elasticity.
skin types
classification that describes a person's genetic skin type.
T-zone
the center area of the face; corresponds to the "T" shape formed by the forehead, nose, and chin.
acne
a chronic inflammatory skin disorder of the sebaceous glands that is characterized by comedones and blemishes.
acne excoriee
a disorder where clients purposely scrape off acne lesions, causing scarring and discoloration.
actinic keratoses
pink or flesh-colored precancerous lesions that feel sharp or rough, usually as the result of sun damage.
albinism
the absence of melanin pigment in the body, including skin, hair, and eyes; the technical term is congenital leukoderma.
anhidrosis
a deficiency in perspiration, often a result of a fever or skin disease, that requires medical treatment.
asteatosis
dry,scaly skin from sebum deficiency, which can be due to aging, body disorders, alkalies of harsh soaps, or cold exposure.
atopic dermatitis
is genetically related to overreactive immune systems and is prevalent in people with nasal allergies and asthma.
bacterial conjunctivitis
pinkeye; very contagious.
basal cell carcinoma
the most common and the least severe type of skin cancer, which often appears as light, pearly nodules.
bromhidrosis
foul-smelling perspiration, usually in the armpits or on the feet.
bulla
a large blister containing water fluid; similar to a vesicle, but larger.
carbuncle
a large circumscribed inflammation of the subcutaneous tissue caused by staphylococci; similar to a furuncle (boil) but larger.
chloasma
increased pigmentation; liver spots.
comedogenic
a tendency to clog follicles and cause a buildup of dead skin cells, resulting in comedones.
comedone
an open comedo or blackhead; a mass of hardened sebum and skin cells in a hair follicle. When the follicle is filled with an excess of oil, a blackhead forms. It is dark because it is exposed to oxygen and oxidizes. Closed ones do not have a follicular opening and are called milia or whiteheads.
contact dermatitis
an inflammatory skin condition caused by contact with a substance or chemical. Occupational disorders from ingredients in cosmetics and chemical solutions can cause it; also called dermatitis venenata.
crust
dead cells form over a wound or blemish while it is healing, resulting in an accumulation of sebum or pus, sometimes mixed with epidermal material. An example is the scab on a sore.
cyst
a closed, abnormally developed sac containing fluid, infection, or other matter above or below the skin.
dermatitis
any inflammatory condition of the skin. Various forms of lesions, such as eczema, vesicles, or papules.
dermatologist
physician who treats skin disorders and diseases.
dermatology
branch of science that studies and treats the skin and its disorders.
eczema
an inflammatory, painful itching of the skin, acute or chronic in nature, with dry or moist lesions. This condition should be referred to a physician. Seborrheic dermatitis is a common form of this.
edema
swelling caused by a response to injury or infection.
erythema
redness caused by inflammation.
excoriation
a skin sore or abrasion produced by scratching or scraping.
fissure
a crack in the skin that penetrates the dermis; ex. are chapped lips or hands.
folliculitis
inflammation of the hair follicles.
furuncle
a subcutaneous abscess filled with pus; also called boils; caused by bacteria in the glands or hair follicles.
herpes simplex virus 1
this strain of the herpes virus causes fever blisters or cold sores; it is a recurring, contagious viral infection consisting of a vesicle or group of vesicles on a red, swollen base. The blisters usually appear on the lips or nostrils.
herpes simplex virus 2
this strain of the virus affecs the genitals.
herpes zoster
shingles, a painful skin condition from the chickenpox virus; characterized by groups of blisters that form a rash.
hyperhidrosis
excessive perspiration caused by heat or body weakness. Medical treatment is required.
hyperkeratosis
a thickening of the skin caused by a mass of keratinized cells.
hyperpigmentation
overproduction of pigment.
hypertrophy
an abnormal growth; many are benign, or harmless.
hypopigmentation
lack of pigment.
impetigo
a contagious bacterial infection often occurring in children; characterized by clusters of small blisters.
keloid
a thick scar resulting from excessive growth of fibrous tissue (collagen).
keratinocytes
cells composed of keratin.
keratoma
an acquired, thickened patch of epidermis. A callus caused by pressure or friction is one.
keratoses
abnormally thick buildup of cells.
keratosis pilaris
redness and bumpiness in the cheeks or upper arms; caused by blocked follicles.
lentigo
freckles; small yellow-brown colored spots; when result from sunlight exposure are actinic, or solar ones; patches are referred to as large macules.
lesions
structural changes in tissues caused by damage or injury.
leukoderma
light, abnormal patches caused by a burn or congenital disease that destroys the pigment producing cells.
macules
a flat spot or discoloration on the skin, such as a freckle. Neither raised nor sunken.
malignant melanoma
the most serious form of skin cancer. Black or dark patches on the skin are usually uneven in texture, jagged, or raised.
melasma
term for hyperpigmentation; pregnancy mask. This condition is triggered by hormonal changes and may fade with time.
milia
also called whiteheads; whitish, pearl-like masses of sebum and dead cells under the skin. Common in dry skin types and may form after skin trauma, such as a laser resurfacing.
miliaria rubra
prickly heat; acute inflammatory disorder of the sweat glands resulting in the eruption of red vesicles and burning, itching skin from excessive heat exposure.
mole
a brownish spot ranging in color from tan to bluish black. Some are flat, resembling freckles; others are raised and darker.
nevus
a birthmark or mole; malformation of the skin due to abnormal pigmentation or dilated capillaries.
nodules
also referred to as tumors, but these are smaller bumps caused by conditions such as scar tissue, fatty deposits, or infections.
papule
a pimple; small elevation on the skin that contains no fluid but may develop pus.
perioral dermatitis
an acne-like condition around the mouth. These are mainly small clusters of papules that could be caused by toothpaste or products used on the face.
primary lesions
characterized by flat, non-palpable changes in skin color such as macules or patches, or an elevation formed by fluid in a cavity, such as vesicles, bullae or pustules.
pruitis
the medical term for itching.
pseudofolliculitis
often referred to as "razor bumps"; resembles folliculitis without the pus.
psoriasis
a skin disease characterized by red patches covered with white-silver scales. It is caused by an overproliferation of skin cells that replicate too fast. Immune dysfunction could be the cause. Usually found in patches on the scalp, elbows, knees, chest, and lower back.
pustule
an inflamed papule with a white or yellow center containing pus, a fluid consisting of white blood cells, bacteria, and other debris produced from an infection.
retention hyperkeratosis
hereditary factor in which dead skin cells do not shed from the follicles as they do on normal skin.
rosacea
inflammation of the skin; chronic congestion primarily on the cheeks and nose. Characterized by redness, dilation of blood vessels, and in severe cases, the formation of papules and pustules.
scale
flaky skin cells; any thin plate of epidermal flakes, dry or oily. Example is abnormal or excessive dandruff.
scar
light-colored, slightly raised mark on the skin formed after an injury or lesion of the skin has healed up. The tissue hardens to heal the injury. Elevated ones are hypertrophic, like a keloid.
sebaceous filaments
similar to open comedones, these are mainly solidified impactions of oil without the cell matter.
sebaceous hyperplasia
benign lesions frequently seen in oilier areas of the face. An overgrowth of the sebaceous gland, they appear similar to open comedones; often doughnut shaped, with sebaceous material in the center.
seborrhea
severe oiliness of the skin; an abnormal secretion from the sebaceous glands.
seborrheic dermatitis
a common form of eczema.
secondary lesions
skin damage, developed in the later stages of disease, that changes the structure of tissue or organs.
skin tag
small outgrowths or extensions of the skin that look like flaps. They are benign and are common under the arms or on the neck.
squamous cell carcinoma
more serious than basal cell carcinoma; characterized by scaly red papules or nodules.
stain
brown or wine-colored discoloration. Occur after certain diseases, or after moles, freckles or liver spots disappear. Port wine is a birthmark, which is a vascular type.
steatoma
a sebaceous cyst or subcutaneous tumor filled with sebum; ranges in size from a pea to an orange. It usually appears on the scalp, neck, and back; also called a wen.
tan
an increase in pigmentation due to the melanin production that results from exposure to UV rays.
telangiectasia
describes capillaries that have been damaged and are now larger, or distended blood vessels. Commonly called couperose skin.
tinea
a fungal infection.
tinea corporis
a contagious infection that forms a ringed, red pattern with elevated edges. Also called ringworm.
tinea versicolor
yeast infection that inhibits melanin production.
tubercle
an abnormal rounded, solid lump; larger than a papule.
tumor
a large nodule; an abnormal cell mass resulting from excessive cell multiplication and varying in size, shape, and color.
ulcer
an open lesion on the skin or mucous membrane of the body, accompanied by pus and loss of skin depth. A deep erosion; a depression in the skin, normally due to infection or cancer.
urticaria
hives.
vasodilation
vascular dilation of blood vessels.
verruca
a wart; hypertrophy of the papillae and epidermis caused by a virus. It is infectious and contagious.
vesicles
a small blister or sac containing clear fluid. Poison ivy and poison oak produce it.
vitiligo
white spots or areas on the skin from lack of pigment cells; sunlight makes it worse.
wheal
an itchy, swollen lesion caused by a slow, insect bite, skin allergy reaction, or stings. Hives and mosquito bits are some. Hives can be caused by exposure to allergens used in products.
desincrustation
process used to soften and emulsify grease deposits (oil) and blackheads in the hair follicles.
extractions
the manual removal of impurities and comedones.
facial
a professional service designed to improve and rejuvenate the skin.
folliculitis
an infection of the hair follicles characterized by inflammation and pus.
folliculitis barbae
hair is trapped under the skin, causing a bacterial infection; from improper shaving.
pseudofolliculitis
often referred to as "razor bumps"; resembles folliculitis without the infection.
vasoconstricting
vascular constriction of capillaries and blood flow.
dispensary
a room used for mixing products and storing supplies.
ergonomically correct
furniture and body positions healthy for the body and spine.
ergonomics
the study of adapting work conditions to suit the worker.
implements
tools used by estheticians.
sanitary maintenance area
an area kept clean for setup of procedure implements and supplies; for example, can be a towel (paper or cloth) on the workstation.
sanitizer
an ultraviolet, wet, or dry form is used for disinfecting tools and equipment. An autoclave is also one.
sharps container
plastic biohazard containers for disposable needles and anything sharp. The container is red and puncture-proof and must be disposed of as medical waste.
acid mantle
protective lipids and secretions on top of the skin.
adipose tissue
a protective cushion that gives contour and smoothness to the body.
apocrine glands
coiled structures attached to hair follicles found in the underarm and genital areas.
arrector pili muscle
the muscle that contracts and causes "goose bumps" when we are cold.
barrier function
the protective barrier of the epidermis; the corneum and intercellular cement protect the surface from irritation and dehydration.
cell mitosis
cell division; occurs continuously in the basal cell layer.
ceramides
lipid materials that are a natural part of the intercellular cement.
collagen
fibrous, connective tissue made from protein; found in the reticular layer of the dermis; gives skin its firmness. Topically, a large, long-chain molecular protein that lies on the top of the skin and binds water; derived from the placentas of cows or other sources.
dermal papillae
membranes of ridges and grooves that attach to the epidermis.
dermis
live layer of connective tissue below the epidermis.
desmosomes
the structures that assist in holding cells together.
eccrine glands
sweat glands found all over the body; not attached to hair follicles, do not produce an offensive odor.
elastin
protein fiber found into the dermis; gives skin its elasticity and firmness.
epidermis
the outermost layer of skin; a thin, protective layer with many nerve endings.
fibroblasts
cells that produce amino acids and collagen.
follicles
hair follicles and sebaceous follicles are tubelike depressions in the epidermis.
free radicals
oxygen atoms or molecules with unpaired electrons that cause oxidation. They steal electrons from other molecules, which damages the other molecules.
hair papillae
cone-shaped elevations at the base of the follicle that fits into the bulb. They are filled with tissue that contains the blood vessels and cells necessary for hair growth and follicle nourishment.
histology
study of the structure and composition of tissue.
hormones
secretions produced by one of the endrocrine glands and carried by the bloodstream or body fluid to another part of the body or a body organ to stimulate functional activity or secretion; the internal messengers for most of the body's systems.
hyaluronic acid
hydrating fluids found in the skin; hydrophilic agent with water-binding properties.
integumentary system
the skin and its extensions, such as the hair, nails, and glands.
intercellular cement
lipid substances between corneum cells that protect the cells from water loss and irritation.
keratin
fiber protein found in the skin, hair, and nails; provides resiliency and protection to the skin.
keratinocytes
cells composed of keratin.
lipids
fats or fatlike substances. Help repair and protect the barrier function of the skin.
lymph vessels
located in the dermis, these supply nourishment within the skin and remove waste.
melanin
skin pigment; a defense mechanism to protect the skin from the sun.
melanocytes
cells that produce pigment granules in the basal layer.
papillary layer
the top layer of the dermis next to the epidermis.
physiology
study of the functions or activities performed by the body's structures.
pores
a tubelike opening for sweat glands on the epidermis.
reticular layer
the deeper layer of the dermis, containing proteins that give the skin its strength and elasticity.
sebaceous glands
connected to the hair follicles in the reticular layer; these produce sebum, which protects the surface of the skin.
sebum
provides protection for the epidermis from external factors and lubricates both the skin and hair.
stratum corneum
outermost layer of the epidermis, also called the horny layer.
stratum germinativum
first layer of the epidermis aboe the papillary layer of the dermis; also known as the basal layer.
stratum granulosum
layer of the epidermis composed of cells filled with keratin that resemble granules; replace cells shed from the stratum corneum.
stratum lucidum
clear layer of epidermis under the stratum corneum; found only on the palms of hands and soles of feet.
stratum spinosum
spiny layer of epidermis above the basal layer.
subcutaneous layer
subcutaneous adipose tissue located beneath the dermis.
subcutis tissue
tissue located beneath the dermis.
sudoriferous or sweat glands
excrete perspiration and detoxify the body by excreting excess salt and unwanted chemicals.
telangiectasia
describes capillaries that have been damaged and are now larger, or distended blood vessels. Commonly called couperose skin.
transepidermal water loss
water loss caused by evaporation on the skin's surface.
UVA rays
longer, aging rays that penetrate deeper into the skin than UVB rays.
UVB rays
shorter, burning rays that are stronger than UVA rays.
active electrode
electrode used on the area to be treated.
alternating current
rapid and interrupted current, flowing first in one direction and then in the opposite direction.
amp
unit that measures the amount of an electric current (quantity of electrons flowing through a conductor).
anaphoresis
process of forcing liquids into the tissues from the negative toward the positive pole.
anode
positive electrode.
blue light
therapeutic light that should be used only on oily skin that is bare; contains few heat rays, is the least penetrating, and has some germicidal and chemical benefits.
cataphoresis
process of forcing acidic substances into deeper tissues using galvanic current from the positive toward the negative pole.
cathode
negative electrode.
circuit breaker
switch that automatically interrupts or shuts off an electric circuit at the first indication of overload.
complete circuit
the path of an electric current from the generating source through conductors and back to its original source.
conductor
any substance, material, or medium that easily transmits electricity.
converter
apparatus that changes direct current to alternating current.
desincrustation
galvanic current is used to create an alkaline chemical reaction that emulsifies or liquefies sebum and debris.
direct current
constant, even-flowing current that travels in one direction only.
electric current
flow of electricity along a conductor.
electricity
form of energy that, when in motion, exhibits magnetic, chemical, or thermal effects; a flow of electrons.
electrode
applicator for directing the electric current from the machine to the client's skin.
electromagnetic radiation
energy in the form of electromagnetic waves; also called radiant energy because it carriers, or radiates, energy through space on waves.
electrotherapy
the use of electrical devices for therapeutic benefits.
faradic current
alternating and interrupted current that produces a mechanical reaction without a chemical effect.
fuse
special device that prevents excessive current from passing through a circuit.
galvanic current
a constant and direct current; uses a positive and negative pole to produce the chemical changes of desincrustation, an iontophoresis.
inactive electrode
opposite pole from the active electrode.
infrared rays
invisible rays that have longer wavelengths, penetrate deeper, and produce more heat than visible light does.
insulator
nonconductor; substance that does not easily transmit electricity.
iontophoresis
ionization; process of introducing water-soluble products into the skin by using electric current such as that from the positive and negative poles of a galvanic machine.
kilowatt
1,000 watts
laser
acronym for light amplification stimulation emission of radiation; a medical device used for hair removal and skin treatments.
light therapy
the application of light rays to the skin for the treatment of acne, wrinkles, capillaries, pigmentation, or hair removal.
microcurrent
a device that mimics the body's natural electrical energy to reeducate and tone facial muscles; improves circulation and increases collagen and elastin production.
milliampere
one-thousandth of an ampere.
modalities
currents used in electrical facial and scalp treatments.
ohm
unit that measures the resistance of an electric current.
phototherapy
is a form of treatment used for various skin conditions using artificial light wavelengths from the ultraviolet (blue light) part of the sun's spectrum.
photothermolysis
process by which light from a laser is turned into heat.
plug
two- or three-prong connector at the end of an electrical cord that connects an apparatus to an electrical outlet.
polarity
negative or positive pole of an electric current.
rectifier
apparatus that changes alternating current to direct current.
red light
therapeutic light used on dry skin in combination with oils and creams; penetrates the deepest and produces the most heat.
sinusoidal current
alternating current similar to faradic current; produces mechanical contractions and is used during scalp and facial manipulations.
Tesla high-frequency current
thermal or heat-producing current with a high rate of oscillation or vibration; also called violet ray.
ultraviolet rays
invisible rays that have short wavelengths, are the least penetrating rays, produce chemical effects, and kill germs; also called cold rays or actinic rays.
visible light
the primary source of light used in facial and scalp treatments.
volt
unit that measures the pressure or force that pushes the flow of electrons forward through a conductor.
watt
measurement of how much electric energy is being used in one second.
wavelength
distance between two successive peaks or electromagnetic waves.
white light
referred to as combination light because it is a combination of all the visible rays of the spectrum.
acquired immunity
immunity developed after the body overcomes a disease, or through inoculation.
AIDS
acquired immune deficiency syndrome; a disease caused by the HIV virus that breaks down the body's immune system.
antiseptics
agents that may kill, retard, or prevent the growth of bacteria.
aseptic procedure
process of properly handling sterilized and disinfected equipment and supplies so that they do not become contaminated by microorganisms until they are used on a client.
asymptomatic
showing no symptoms or signs of infection.
autoclave
apparatus for sterilization by steam under pressure.
bacilli
short, rod-shaped bacteria; the most common bacteria; produce diseases such as tetanus (lockjaw), typhoid fever, tuberculosis, and diphtheria.
bacteria
one-celled microorganisms with both plant and animal characteristics; also known as microbes.
bactericidal
capable of destroying bacteria.
bloodborne pathogens
disease-causing bacteria or viruses that are carried through the body in the blood or body fluids.
cilia
hairlike extensions that protrude from cells and help to sweep away fluids and particles.
cocci
round bacteria that appear alone or in groups.
communicable
when a disease spreads from one person to another by contact.
contagious
communicable or transmittable by contact.
contaminants
substances that can cause contamination.
contaminated
when an object or product has microorganisms in or on it.
cross-contamination
contamination that occurs when you touch an object, such as the skin, and then touch an object or product with the same hand or utensil.
decontamination
removal of pathogens and other substances from tools and surfaces.
dermatophytes
a type of fungi that cause skin, hair, and nail infections.
diplococci
spherical bacteria that grow in pairs and cause diseases such as pneumonia.
disinfectants
chemical agents used to destroy most bacteria, fungi, and viruses and to disinfect implements and surfaces.
disinfection
second-highest level of decontamination, nearly as effective as sterilization but does not kill bacterial spores; used on hard, nonporous surfaces.
efficacy
effectiveness.
exposure incident
a specific contact of a client's blood or other potentially infectious materials (OPIM) with the esthetician's eyes, mouth, or other mucous membranes as a result of performing services and duties.
flagella
long threads attached to the cell to help it move.
fungi
vegetable parasites, including molds, mildews, and yeasts.
fungicidal
capable of destroying fungi.
general infection
infection that results when the bloodstream carries pathogens and their toxins to all parts of the body.
hepatitis
disease marked by inflammation of the liver and caused by a bloodborne virus.
HIV
virus that causes AIDS.
immunity
ability of the body to resist infection and destroy pathogens that have infected the body.
infection
the invasion of body tissues by disease-causing pathogenic bacteria.
local infection
is confined to a particular part of the body and is indicated by a lesion containing pus.
Material Safety Data Sheet
information compiled by a manufacturer about its product, ranging from ingredient content and associated hazards to combustion levels and storage requirements.
MRSA
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus; a highly resistant form of staph infection that can be caused by the overuse of antibiotics.
microorganism
any organism of microscopic to submicroscopic size.
motility
cell motility refers to single-celled organisms and their ability to move in their environment.
natural immunity
an inherent resistance to disease.
nitrile gloves
gloves made from synthetic rubbers known as acrylonitrile and butadiene; these gloves are resistant to tears, punctures, chemicals, and solvents.
nonpathogenic
not harmful; not disease producing.
parasite
organism that lives in or on another organism and draws its nourishment from that organism.
pathogenic
causing disease; harmful.
pediculosis
skin disease caused by infestation with head lice.
phenol
carbolic acid; a caustic poison; used for peels and to sanitize metallic implements.
protozoa
single-celled parasites with the ability to move; they can divide and grow only when inside a host.
pseudomonacidal
capable of destroying Pseudomonas bacteria.
pus
fluid product of inflammation that contains white blood cells and the debris of dead cells, tissue elements, and bacteria.
quaternary ammonium compounds
quats; disinfectants that are considered nontoxic, odorless, and fast acting.
sanitation
third level of decontamination; significantly reduces the number of pathogens or disease-producing organisms found on a surface.
scabies
contagious skin disease caused by an itch mite burrowing under the skin.
spirilla
spiral or corkscrew-shaped bacteria that cause syphilis, Lyme disease, and other diseases.
staphylococci
pus-forming bacteria that grow in clusters like a bunch of grapes; cause abscesses, pustules, and boils.
sterilization
highest level of decontamination; completely kills every organism on a nonporous surface.
streptococci
pus-forming bacteria arranged in curved lines resembling a string of beads; cause infections such as strep throat and blood poisoning.
tuberculocidal
capable of destroying the bacteria that cause tuberculosis.
Universal Precautions
set of guidelines and controls, published by OSHA, that require the employer and the employee to assume that all human blood and specified human body fluids are infectious for HIV, hepatitis B virus, and other bloodborne pathogens.
virucidal
capable of destroying viruses.
virus
microorganism that can invade plants and animals, including bacteria.
client consultation
verbal communication with a client to determine desired results.
communication
the act of accurately sharing information between two people, or groups of people.
reflective listening
listening to the client and then repeating, in your own words, what you think the client is telling you.
ethics
principles of good character, proper conduct, and moral judgement, expressed through personality, human relations skills, and professional image.
personal hygiene
daily maintenance of cleanliness and healthfulness through certain sanitary practices.
physical presentation
a person's physical posture, walk, and movements.
professional image
the impression projected by a person engaged in any profession, consisting of outward appearance and conduct exhibited in the workplace.
esthetician
person devoted to, or professionally occupied with, skin health and beauty.
esthetics
branch of anatomical science that deals with the overall health and well-being of the skin, the largest organ of the human body; from the Greek word aesthetikos, meaning "perceptible to the senses."
henna
dye obtained from the powdered leaves and shoots of the mignonette tree; used as a reddish hair dye and in tattooing.
medical aesthetics
integration of surgical procedures and esthetic treatments.
nanotechnology
manipulation of materials on an atomic or molecular scale, or the "micronization" of ingredients.
AHAs
are naturally-occuring mild acids; glycolic, lactic, malic, and tartaric acid; exfoliate by loosening the bonds between dead corneum cells and dissolve the intercellular cement. Acids also stimulate cell renewal.
alcohol
antiseptic and solvent used in perfumes, lotions, and astringents.
algae
derived from minerals and phytohormones; remineralizes and revitalizes the skin.
allantoin
used in cold cream, hand lotion, hair lotion, aftershave, and other skin-soothing cosmetics because of its ability to help heal wounds and skin ulcers and to stimulate the growth of healthy tissue.
aloe vera
the most popular botanical used in cosmetic formulations; emollient and film-forming gum resin with hydrating, softening, healing, antimicrobial, and anti-inflammatory properties.
alum
compound made of aluminum, potassium, or ammonium sulfate with strong astringent action.
ampoules
small, sealed vials containing a single application of highly concentrated extracts in a water or oil base.
anhydrous
describes products that do not contain any water.
antioxidants
free radical scavengers; vitamins, and ingredients; also inhibit oxidation. They are used both to help the condition of the skin and to stop the oxidation that causes products to turn rancid and spoil.
aromatherapy
the therapeutic use of plant aromas and essential oils for beauty and health treatment purposes.
astringents
liquids that help remove excess oil on the skin.
azulene
derived from the chamomile plant and characterized by its deep blue color; has anti-inflammatory and soothing properties.
benzyl peroxide
drying ingredient with antibacterial properties commonly used for blemishes and acne.
beta-glucans
ingredients used in antiaging cosmetics to help reduce the appearance of fine lines and wrinkles by stimulating the formation of collagen.
BHAs
are exfoliating organic acids; salicylic and citric acids; are milder than AHAs; dissolve oil and are beneficial for oily skin.
binders
substances such as glycerin that bind, or hold, products together.
botanicals
ingredients derived from plants.
calendula
anti-inflammatory plant extract.
carbomers
ingredients used to thicken creams; frequently used in gel products.
carrot
rich in vitamin A, commonly derived from seeds and as an oil; also used as product coloring.
ceramides
lipid materials that are a natural part of the intercellular cement.
certified colors
inorganic color agents also known as metal salts; listed on ingredient labels as D&C (drug and cosmetic).
chamomile
plant extract with calming and soothing properties.
chelating agent
a chemical added to cosmetics to improve the efficiency of the preservative.
chemical exfoliation
chemical agent that dissolves dead skin cells.
clay masks
masks that draw impurities to the surface of the skin as they dry and tighten.
cleansers
soaps and detergents that clean the skin. Alkalines and fatty acids of oils or soaps are combined to make soaps.
coenzyme Q10
powerful antioxidant that protects and revitalizes skin cells.
collagen
typically, a long-chain molecular protein that lies on the top of the skin and binds water, also plumps the surface of the skin and prevents water loss. A topical protein derived from animals or synthetically manufactured; is a protein fiber in the dermis.
colorants
substances such as vegetable, pigment, or mineral dyes that give products color.
comedogenicity
tendency of any topical substance to cause or to worsen a buildup in the follicle, leading to the development of a comedo (blackhead).
cosmeceuticals
products intended to improve the skin's health and appearance.
cosmetics
as defined by the FDA, "articles that are intended to be rubbed, poured, sprinkled or otherwise applied to the human body or any part thereof for cleansing, beautifying, promoting attractiveness or altering the appearance."
delivery systems
chemical systems that deliver ingredients to specific tissues of the epidermis.
detergents
type of surfactant used as cleansers in skin care products.
DMAE
antioxidant that stabilizes cell membrances and boosts the effect of other antioxidants.
echinacea
prevents infection and has healing properties. Used internally to support the immune system.
emollients
ingredients that lubricate, moisturize, and prevent water loss.
emulsifiers
surfactants that cause oil and water to mix and form an emulsion.
enzyme peels
enzyme products that dissolve keratin proteins (dead skin cells) and exfoliate the skin.
essential oils
oils derived from herbs; have many different properties and effects on the skin and psyche.
exfoliants
mechanical and chemical products or processes used to exfoliate the skin.
exfoliation
the peeling or sloughing of the outer layer of skin.
fatty acids
lubricant ingredients derived from plant oils or animal fats.
fatty alcohols
fatty acids that have been exposed to hydrogen.
fatty esters
emollients produced from fatty acids and alcohols.
fragrances
give products their scent.
free radicals
oxygen atoms or molecules with unpaired electrons that cause oxidation. They steal electrons from other molecules, which damages the other molecules.
fresheners
skin-freshening lotions with a low alcohol content.
functional ingredients
ingredients in cosmetic products that allow the products to spread, given them body and texture, and give them a specific form such as a lotion, cream, or gel.
glycerin
formed by a decomposition of oils or fats; excellent skin softener and humectant; very strong water binder.
glycoproteins
yeast cell derivatives that enhance cellular metabolism, which boosts oxygen uptake in the cell.
gommage
peeling cream that is rubbed off the skin.
grapeseed extract
powerful antioxidant with soothing properties.
green tea
power antioxidant and soothing agent. Antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, and a stimulant. Helpful for couperose skin.
healing agents
substances such as chamomile or aloe that help to heal the skin.
herbs
along with plant extracts, herbs contain phytohormones. Hundreds of different herbs are used in skin care products and cosmetics; they heal, stimulate, soothe, and moisturize.
horsechestnut
extract containing bioflavonoids; also known as vitamin P. Helps strengthen capillary walls; used for couperose areas or telangiectasia.
humectants
ingredients that attract water. Humectants draw moisture to the skin and soften its surface, diminishing lines caused by dryness. Glycerin is a humectant used in creams and lotions.
hyaluronic acid
hydrating fluids found in the skin; hydrophilic agent with water-binding properties.
hydrators
ingredients that attract water to the skin's surface; also known as humectants or hydrophilic agents.
jojoba
oil widely used in cosmetics; extracted from the beanlike seeds of the desert shrub. Used as a lubricant and noncomedogenic emollient and moisturizer.
kojic acid
skin-brightening agent.
lakes
the common term for certified colors.
lanolin
emollient with moisturizing properties; also an emulsifier with high water absorption capabilities.
lavender
all-purpose oil having many properties. Antiallergenic, anti-inflammatory, antiseptic, antibacterial, balancing, energizing, soothing, healing, and, conversely, stimulating.
licorice
anti-irritant used for sensitive skin.
lipids
fats or fatlike substances. Lipids help repair and protect the barrier function of the skin.
liposomes
closed lipid bilayer spheres that encapsulate ingredients, target their delivery to specific tissues of the skin, and control their release.
lubricants
coat the skin and reduce friction. Mineral oil is a lubricant.
mask
ingredients such as herbs, vitamins, and oils combined with clay, seaweed, or hydrating bases that treat the skin.
mechanical exfoliation
method of rubbing dead cells off of the skin.
methylparaben
one of the most frequently used in preservatives because of its very low sensitizing potential. Combats bacteria and molds; noncomedogenic.
mineral oil
a lubricant derived from petroleum.
modelage masks
thermal heat masks.
moisturizers
products formulated to add moisture to the skin.
mucopolysaccharides
carbohydrate-lipid complexes that are also good water binders.
noncertified colors
colors that are organic, meaning they come from animal or plant extracts; they can also be natural mineral pigments.
oil soluble
compatible with oil.
olfactory system
gives us our sense of smell, which is the strongest of the five senses.
packs
cream masks or gel masks that nourish rather than deep-cleanse the skin.
papaya
natural enzyme used for exfoliation and in enzyme peels.
parabens
one of the most commonly used groups of preservatives in the cosmetic, pharmaceutical, and food industries; provide bacteriostatic and fungistatic activity against a diverse number of organisms.
paraffin wax masks
mask used to warm the skin and promote penetration of ingredients deeper into the skin through the heat trapped under the surface of the paraffin.
peptides
chains of amino acids used to treat wrinkles and elasticity.
performance ingredients
ingredients in cosmetics products that cause the actual changes in the appearance of the skin.
petroleum jelly
an occlusive agent that restores the barrier layer by holding in water. Used after laser surgery to protect the skin while healing.
phytotherapy
the use of plant extracts for therapeutic benefits.
pH adjusters
acids or alkalis (bases) used to adjust the pH of products.
polyglucans
ingredients derived from yeast cells that help strengthen the immune system and stimulate the metabolism; they are also hydrophilic and help preserve and protect collagen and elastin.
polymers
chemical compounds formed by a number of small molecules; advanced vehicles that release substances onto the skin's surface at a microscopically-controlled rate.
potassium hydroxide
a strong alkali used in soaps and creams.
preservatives
chemical agents that inhibit the growth of microorganisms in cosmetic formulations. These kill bacteria and prevent products from spoiling.
propylene glycol
a humectant often used in dry or sensitive skin moisturizers.
quaternium 15
an all-purpose preservative active against bacteria, mold, and yeast. It is probably the greatest formaldehyde releaser among cosmetic preservatives, causing dermatitis and allergies.
retinoic acid
a vitamin A derivative. It has demonstrated an ability to alter collagen synthesis and is used to treat acne and visible signs of aging. Side effects are irritation, photosensitivity, skin dryness, redness, and peeling.
retinol
a natural form of vitamin A, stimulates cell repair and helps to normalize skin cells by generating new cells.
rose
credited with moisturizing, astringent, tonic, and deodorant properties; found in the forms of extracts, oil, or water.
salicylic acid
a beta hydroxy acid with exfoliating and antiseptic properties; natural sources include sweet birth, willow bark, and wintergreen.
seaweed
known for its humectant and moisturizing properties, vitamin content, metabolism stimulation and detoxification, and aiding skin firmness.
serums
concentrated liquid ingredients for the skin designed to penetrate and treat various skin conditions.
silicones
an oil that is chemically combined wiht silicon and oxygen and leaves a noncomedogenic, protective film on the surface of the skin.
sodium bicarbonate
baking soda; an alkaline inorganic salt used as a buffering agent, neutralizer and a pH adjuster.
solvent
substances that dissolve another substance to form a solution.
sorbitol
humectant that absorbs moisture from the air to prevent skin dryness.
sphingolipids
ceramides, or lipid material, that are a natural part of the intercellular cement. Glycosphingolipids and phospholipids are also natural lipids found in the barrier layer.
squalane
derived from olives; desensitizes and nourishes; an emollient.
squalene
originally from shark-liver oil; also occurs in small amounts in olive oil, wheat germ oil, and rice bran oil; also found in human sebum. A lubricant and perfume fixative.
sulfur
sulfur reduces oil-gland activity and dissolves the skin's surface layer of dry, dead cells. This ingredient is commonly used in acne products. It can cause allergic skin reactions in some sensitive people.
surfactants
surface active agents that reduce surface tension between the skin and the product to increase product spreadability; also allow oil and water to mix; detergents and emulsifiers.
tea tree
soothing and antiseptic; antifungal properties.
tissue respiratory factor
ingredient derived from yeast cells that functions as an anti-inflammatory and moisturizing ingredient.
titanium dioxide
an inorganic physical sunscreen that reflects UVA rays.
toners
liquids that tone and tighten the skin.
urea
properties include enhancing the penetration abilities of other substances. Anti-inflammatory, antiseptic, and deodorizing action allow urea to protect the skin's surface and help maintain healthy skin. Does not induce photoallerty, phototoxicity, or sensitization.
vehicles
spreading agents and ingredients that carry or deliver other ingredients into the skin and make them more effective.
vitamin C
an antioxidant vitamin needed for proper repair of the skin and tissues.
vitamin K
vitamin responsible for the synthesis of factors necessary for blood coagulation.
water soluble
mixable with water.
witch hazel
extracted from the bark of the hamanelis shrub; can be a soothing agent or, in higher concentrations, an astringent.
zinc oxide
an inorganic physical sunscreen that reflects UVA rays. Also used to protect, soothe, and heal the skin; is somewhat astringent, antiseptic, and antibacterial.
chemistry
science that deals with the composition, structures, and properties of matter and with how matter changes under different conditions; there are two branches of this: organic and inorganic.
combustion
rapid oxidation of any substance, accompanied by the production of heat and light; eg., lighting a match.
compound molecules
chemical combinations of two or more atoms of different elements.
element
the simplest form of matter; cannot be broken down into a simpler substance without loss of identity; there are about 90 of these naturally occurring; all matter is made up of one more of these.
elemental molecules
chemical combinations of two or more atoms of the same element.
emulsions
an unstable mixture of two or more immiscible substances united with the aid of an emulsifier; tend to separate over time; should be stable for 3 years.
free radicals
"super" oxidizers that cause an oxidation reaction and produce a new free one of these in the process; are created by highly reactive atoms or molecules (often oxygen) having an unpaired number of electrons; are unstable and can damage DNA, causing inflammation and disease in the body.
hydrogen
colorless, odorless, tasteless gas; the lightest element known.
hydrogen peroxide
chemical compound of hydrogen and oxygen; a colorless liquid with a characteristic odor and a slightly acid taste.
hydrophilic
capable of combining with or attracting water.
immiscible
not capable of being mixed; eg., water and oil.
inorganic chemistry
branch of chemistry dealing with elements that do not contain carbon; substances that are not, and never were, alive; eg., metals, minerals, pure water, clean air.
lipophilic
having an affinity or attraction to fat and oils.
logarithmic scale
a method of displaying data in multiples of 10; pH scale.
matter
any substance that occupies space and has mass (weight); not everything we see has this; all of this exists in three different physical forms - solid, liquid or gas.
miscible
capable of being mixed with another liquid in any proportion without separating; mutually soluble; eg., water and alcohol.
molecule
a chemical combination of two or more atoms; there are two types of this: elemental and compound.
nitrogen
colorless, gaseous element that makes up four-fifths of the air in the atmosphere; found chiefly in the form of ammonia and nitrates.
oil-in-water emulsion
oil droplets dispersed in a water with the aid of an emulsifying agent; small amount of oil with a greater amound of water; most lotions/cremes used by estheticians are this; eg., mayo, skin cleansers, moisturizers, body washes.
organic chemistry
study of substances that contain carbon; all living things contain carbon; eg., gasoline, plastics, synthetic fabrics, pesticides and fertilizers.
oxidation
chemical reaction that combines a substance with oxygen to produce an oxide.
oxidation-reduction reactions
one of the most common types of chemical reactions; prevalent in all areas of chemistry. When oxygen is added to a substance, the substance is oxidized; for example, rust forms when oxygen is added to iron.
oxidize
to combine or cause a substance to combine with oxygen.
oxygen
the most abundant element on earth; colorless, odorless, tasteless gas.
pH
relative degree of acidity and alkalinity of a substance; measured on a scale of 0 to 14; short for potential hydrogen.
physical change
change in the form or physical properties of a substance without a chemical reaction or the formation of a new substance.
physical mixture
combination of two or more substances united physically, not chemically, without a fixed composition and in any proportions.
physical properties
characteristics that can be determined without a chemical reaction and that do not cause a chemical change in the identity of the substance.
redox
acronym for reduction-oxidation; chemical reaction in which the oxidizing agent is reduced and the reducing agent is oxidized.
redox reactions
oxidation and reduction happening at the same time.
reduction
the loss of oxygen from a substance.
solute
a substance that is dissolved by a solvent to form a solution.
solutions
a uniform mixture of two or more mutually miscible substances; transparent (may be colored); does not separate on standing.
solvent
a substance that dissolves another substance to form a solution.
surfactants
surface active agents that reduce surface tension between the skin and the product to increase product spreadability; also allow oil and water to mix; detergents and emulsifiers; short for surface active agents.
suspensions
state in which solid particles are distributed throughout a liquid medium; uniform mixtures of two or more substances; differ from solutions due to the size of the particles; not usually transparent and have a tendency to separate over time.
water
most abundant of all substances, comprising about 75 percent of the earth's surface and about 65 percent of the human body; is seldom pure.
water-in-oil emulsion
droplets of water dispersed in an oil; smaller amount of water, greater amount of oil; eg., cleansing cream, baby cream, hair grooming cream.
acid mantle
protective lipids and secretions on top of the skin; barrier against certain forms of bacteria and microorganisms; factor in skin shedding and renewal process; average pH is 5.5
acid-alkali neutralization reactions
when an acid is mixed with an alkali, also called a base, in equal proportions to neutralize each other and form water (H2O) and a salt.
acids
substances that have a pH below 7.0, taste sour, and turn litmus paper from blue to red.
air
the gaseous mixture that makes up the earth's atmosphere. It is odorless, colorless, and generally consists of about 1 part oxygen and 4 parts nitrogen by volume; also contains carbon dioxide, ammonia and organic matter.
alkalies
also called bases; have a pH above 7.0, taste bitter, and turn litmus paper from red to blue; the higher the pH, the greater the degree of this.
antioxidants
free radical scavengers, vitamins, and ingredients; also inhibit oxidation; are used both to help the condition of the skin and to stop the oxidation that causes products to turn rancid and spoil (stabilizes products); eg., Vits. A, C and E.
atoms
the smallest particle of an element that still retains the properties of that element; structural units that make up elements; particles from which all matter is composed.
chemical change
change in the chemical composition of a substance, in which a new substance or substances are formed that have properties different from the original; change that can be determined only with a chemical reaction; eg., rusting, burning wood.
chemical compounds
combinations of two or more atoms of different elements united chemically with a fixed chemical composition, definite proportions, and distinct properties.
chemical properties
those characteristics that can be determined only with a chemical reaction and that cause a chemical change in the identity of the substance.
adenosine triphosphate (ATP)
the substance that provides energy to cells and converts oxygen to carbon dioxide, a waste product we breathe out.
amino acid
organic acids that form the building blocks of protein.
arteriosclerosis
clogging and hardening of the arteries
bioflavenoids
biologically active flavonoids; also called Vitamin P; considered an aid to healthy skin and found most abundantly in citrus fruits.
B vitamins
these water-soluble vitamins interact with other water-soluble vitamins and act as coenzymes (catalysts) by facilitating enzymatic reactions. Include niacin, riboflavin, thiamine, pyridoxine, folacin, biotin, cobalamine, and pantothenic acid.
calories
a measure of heat units; measures food energy for the body.
carbohydrates
compounds that break down the basic chemical sugars and supply energy for the body.
complementary foods
combinations of two incomplete foods; complementary proteins eaten together provide all the essential amino acids and make a complete protein.
deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)
the blueprint material of genetic information; contains all the information that controls the function of every living cell.
disaccharides
sugars made up of two simple sugars such as lactose and sucrose.
enzymes
catalysts that break down complex food molecules to utilize extracted energy.
fats (lipids)
macronutrients used to produce energy in the body; the materials in the sebaceous glands that lubricate the skin.
glycosaminoglycans
a water-binding substance between the fibers of the dermis.
hypoglycemia
a condition in which blood glucose or blood sugar drops too low; caused by either too much insulin or low food intake.
linoleic acid
omega 6, an essential fatty acid used to make important hormones; also part of the skin's lipid barrier.
macronutrients
nutrients that make up the largest part of the nutrition we take in; the three basic food groups: protein, carbohydrates, and fats.
micronutrients
vitamins and substances that have no calories or nutritional value, yet are essential for body functions.
minerals
inorganic materials required for many reactions of the cells and body.
monosaccharides
carbohydrates made up of one basic sugar unit.
mucopolysaccharides
carbohydrate-lipid complexes that are also good water binders.
nonessential amino acids
amino acids that can be synthesized by the body and do not have to be obtained from the diet.
omega-3 fatty acids
alphalinoleic acid; a type of "good" polyunsaturated fat that may decrease cardiovascular diseases. It is also an anti-inflammatory and beneficial for skin.
osteoporosis
a thinning of bones, leaving them fragile and prone to fractures; caused by the reabsorption of calcium into the blood.
polysaccharides
carbohydrates that contain three or more simple carbohydrate molecules.
proteins
chains of amino acid molecules used in all cell functions and body growth.
retinoic acid (Retin-A)
a vitamin A derivative. it has demonstrated an ability to alter collagen synthesis and is used to treat acne and visible signs of aging. Side effects are irritation, photosensitivity, skin dryness, redness, and peeling.
vitamin A (retinol)
an antioxidant that aids in the functioning and repair of skin cells.
vitamin C (ascorbic acid)
an antioxidant vitamin needed for proper repair of the skin and tissues.
vitamin D
fat-soluble vitamin sometimes called the "sunshine vitamin" because the skin synthesizes vitamin D from cholesterol when exposed to sunlight. Essential for growth and development.
vitamin E (tocopherol)
primarily an antioxidant; helps protect the skin from the harmful effects of the sun's rays.
vitamin K
vitamin responsible for the synthesis of factors necessary for blood coagulation.
anagen
first stage of hair growth, during which new hair is produced.
arrector pili muscle
located in the hair follicle; when it contracts, the hair stands straight up, causing goose bumps.
barbae folliculitis
Infected inflammation of the hair follicle; ingrown hairs due to shaving. Pseudofolliculitis is inflammation of hair follicles without the infection.
catagen
second transition stage of hair growth; in the catagen stage, the hair shaft grows upward and detaches itself from the bulb.
depilation
the process of removing hair at skin level.
depilatory
substance, usually a caustic alkali preparation, used for temporarily removing superfluous hair by dissolving it at the skin level.
electrolysis
removal of hair by means of an electric current that destroys the hair root.
epilation
removes hairs from the follicles; waxing or tweezing.
hair bulb
the swelling at the base of the follicle that provides that hair with nourishment; it is a thick, club-shaped structure that forms the lower part of the hair root.
hair follicle
the tubular shield that surrounds the hair shaft; the "pore" where hairs grow.
hair papillae
cone-shaped elevations at the base of the follicle that fits into the bulb. The papillae are filled with tissue that contains the blood vessels and cells necessary for hair growth and follicle nourishment.
hair root
part of the hair that lies within the follicle at its base, where the hair grows.
hair shaft
portion of the hair that extends or projects beyond the skin, consisting of the outer layer (cuticle), inner layer (medulla), and middle layer (cortex). Color changes happen in the cortex.
hirsutism
growth of an unusual amount of hair on parts of the body normally bearing only downy hair, such as the face, arms, and legs of women or the backs of men.
hypertrichosis
excessive hair growth where hair does not normally grow.
intense pulsed light (IPL)
a photoepilation hair-reduction method using flashes of light and different wavelengths; an intense pulse of electromagnetic radiation.
lanugo
the hair on a fetus; soft and downy hair covering most of the body.
laser hair removal
a photoepilation hair reduction treatment in which a laser beam is pulsed on the skin using one wavelength at a time, impairing hair growth; an intense pulse of electromagnetic radiation.
photoepilation
hair reduction methods using lasers and intense pulsed light (IPL).
sugaring
an ancient method of hair removal, dating back to the Egyptians. The original recipe is a mixture of sugar, lemon juice, and water that is heated to form syrup, molded into a ball and pressed onto the skin, and then quickly stripped away.
telogen
final hair-growth stage, the resting stage.
thermolysis
a heat effect; used for permanent hair removal.
trichology
the scientific study of hair and its diseases.
vellus hair
very fine, soft, downy hair covering most of the body.
absorption
the transport of fully digested food into the circulatory system to feed the tissues and cells.
angular artery
artery that supplies blood to the side of the nose.
anterior auricular artery
artery that supplies blood to the front part of the ear.
arteries
thick-walled muscular and flexible tubes that carry oxygenated blood from the heart to the capillaries throughout the body.
atrium
one of the two upper chambers of the heart through which blood is pumped to the ventricles.
auriculotemporal nerve
nerve that affects the external ear and skin above the temple, up to the top of the skull.
autonomic nervous system
the part of the nervous system that controls the involuntary muscles; regulates the action of the smooth muscles, glands, blood vessels, and heart.
axon
the process, or extension, of a neuron by which impulses are sent away from the body of the cell.
blood
nutritive fluid circulating through the circulatory system (heart, veins, arteries, and capillaries).
brain
part of the central nervous system contained in the cranium; largest and most complex nerve tissue; controls sensation, muscles, glandular activity, and the power to think and feel.
brain stem
structure that connects the spinal cord to the brain.
buccal nerve
nerve that affects the muscles of the mouth.
capillaries
thin-walled blood vessels that connect the smaller arteries to the veins.
central nervous (cerebrospinal) system
consists of the brain, spinal cord, spinal nerves, and cranial nerves.
cerebellum
lies at the base of the cerebrum and is attached to the brain stem; this term is Latin for "little brain."
cerebrum
makes up the bulk of the brain and is located in the front, upper part of the cranium.
cervical cutaneous nerve
nerve located at the side of the neck that affects the front and sides of the neck as far down as the breastbone.
cervical nerves
nerves that originate at the spinal cord, whose branches supply the muscles and scalp at the back of the head and neck.
circulatory system
system that controls the steady circulation of the blood through the body by means of the heart and blood vessels.
common carotid arteries
arteries that supply blood to the face, head, and neck.
defecation
elimination of foods from the body.
dendrites
tree-like branching of nerve fibers extending from a nerve cell; short nerve fibers that carry impulses toward the cell.
diaphragm
muscular wall that separates the thorax from the abdominal region and helps control breathing.
diencephalon
located in the uppermost part of the midbrain; consists of two main parts, the thalamus and the hypothalamus.
digestion
breakdown of food by mechanical and chemical means.
digestive enzymes
chemicals that change certain kinds of food into a form that can be used by the body.
digital nerve
nerve that, with its branches, supplies the fingers and toes.
eleventh cranial nerve (accessory)
a type of motor nerve that controls the motion of the neck muscles.
endocrine (ductless) glands
ductless glands that release hormonal secretions directly into the bloodstream.
endocrine system
group of specialized glands that affect the growth, development, sexual activities, and health of the entire body.
excretory system
group of organs - including the kidneys, liver, skin, large intestine, and lungs - that purify the body by elimination of waste matter.
exocrine (duct) glands
duct glands that produce a substance that travels through small tubelike ducts, such as the sudoriferous (sweat) glands and the sebaceous (oil) glands.
external carotid artery
artery that supplies blood to the anterior parts of the scalp, ear, face, neck, and side of the head.
external jugular vein
vein located on the side of the neck that carries blood returning to the heart from the head, face, and neck.
facial artery
artery that supplies blood to the lower region of the face, mouth, and nose; also called external maxillary artery.
fifth cranial nerve
chief sensory nerve of the face; controls chewing; also known as trifacial or trigeminal nerve.
frontal artery
artery that supplies blood to the forehead and upper eyelids.
glands
a cell or group of cells that produce and release substances used nearby or in another part of the body.
greater auricular nerve
nerve at the sides of the neck affecting the face, ears, neck, and parotid gland.
greater occipital nerve
nerve located in the back of the head, affecting the scalp.
heart
muscular cone-shaped organ that keeps the blood moving within the circulatory system.
hemoglobin
iron-containing protein in red blood cells that binds to oxygen.
hormones
secretions produced by one of the endocrine glands and carried by the bloodstream or body fluid to another part of the body, or a body organ, to stimulate functional activity or secretion.
immune or lymphatic system
body system made up of lymph, lymph nodes, the thymus gland, the spleen, and lymph vessels. Functions protect the body from disease by developing immunities and destroying disease-causing microorganisms as well as draining the tissue spaces of excess interstitial fluids to the blood. It carries waste and impurities away from the cells.
inferior labial artery
supplies blood to the lower lip.
infraorbital artery
artery that originates from the internal maxillary artery and supplies blood to the eye muscles.
infraorbital nerve
nerve that affects the skin of the lower eyelid, side of the nose, upper lip, and mouth.
infratrochlear nerve
nerve that affects the membrane and skin of the nose.
ingestion
eating or taking food into the body.
integumentary system
the skin and its accessory organs, such as the oil and sweat glands, sensory receptors, hair, and nails.
internal carotid artery
artery that supplies blood to the brain, eyes, eyelids, forehead, nose, and internal ear.
internal jugular vein
vein located at the side of the neck to collect blood from the brain and parts of the face and neck.
interstitial
the fluid in spaces between the tissue cells.
lungs
spongy tissues composed of microscopic cells in which inhaled air is exchanged for carbon dioxide during one respiratory cycle.
lymph
clear, yellowish fluid that circulates in the lymph spaces (lymphatic) of the body; carries waste and impurities away from the cells.
lymph capillaries
lymphatic vessels that occur in clusters and are distributed throughout most of the body.
lymph nodes
glandlike bodies in the lymphatic vessels that filter lymph products.
mandibular nerve
branch of the fifth cranial nerve that supplies the muscles and skin of the lower part of the face; also, nerve that affects the muscles of the chin and lower lip.
maxillary nerve
branch of the fifth cranial nerve that supplies the upper part of the face.
median nerve
nerve, smaller than the ulnar and radial nerves, that supplies the arm and hand.
mental nerve
nerve that affects the skin of the lower lip and chin.
middle temporal artery
artery that supplies blood to the temples.
motor (efferent) nerves
nerves that carry impulses from the brain to the muscles.
nasal nerve
nerve that affects the point and lower sides of the nose.
nerves
whitish cords made up of bundles of nerve fibers held together by connective tissue, through which impulses are transmitted.
nervous system
body system composed of the brain, spinal cord, and nerves; controls and coordinates all other systems and makes them work harmoniously and efficiently.
neuron
nerve cell; basic unit of the nervous system, consisting of a cell body, nucleus, dendrites, and axon.
occipital artery
artery that supplies blood to the skin and muscles of the scalp and back of the head up to the crown.
ophthalmic nerve
branch of the fifth cranial nerve that supplies the skin of the forehead, upper eyelids, and interior portion of the scalp, orbit, eyeball, and nasal passage.
parasympathetic division
as part of the autonomic nervous system, it operates under normal nonstressful situations, such as resting. It also helps to restore calm and balance to the body after a stressful event.
parietal artery
artery that supplies blood to the side and crown of the head.
pericardium
double-layered membranous sac enclosing the heart.
peripheral nervous system
system of nerves and ganglia that connects the peripheral parts of the body to the central nervous system; has both sensory and motor nerves.
peristalsis
moving food along the digestive tract.
plasma
fluid part of the blood and lymph that carries food and secretions to the cells and carbon dioxide from the cells.
platelets
blood cells that aid in the forming of clots.
posterior auricular artery
artery that supplies blood to the scalp, behind and above the ear.
posterior auricular nerve
nerve that affects the muscles behind the ear at the base of the skull.
pulmonary circulation
process of blood circulation from heart to lungs to be purified.
radial artery
artery that supplies blood to the thumb side of the arm and the back of the hand.
radial nerve
nerve that, with its branches, supplies the thumb side of the arm and back of the hand.
red blood cells
also called red corpuscles; carry oxygen from the lungs to the body cells.
reflex
automatic nerve reaction to a stimulus; involves the movement of an impulse from a sensory receptor along the afferent nerve to the spinal cord, and a responsive impulse along an efferent neuron to a musle, causing a reaction.
reproductive system
body system responsible for processes by which plants and animals produce offspring.
respiratory system
body system consisting of the lungs and air passage; enables breathing, which supplies the body with oxygen and eliminates carbon dioxide as a waste product.
sensory (afferent) nerves
nerves that carry impulses or messages from the sense organs to the brain, where sensations of touch, cold, heat, sight, hearing, taste, smell, pain, and pressure are experienced.
seventh (facial) cranial nerve
chief motor nerve of the face, emerging near the lower part of the ear.
smaller (lesser) occipital nerve
nerve located at the base of the skull, affecting the scalp and muscles behind the ear.
spinal cord
portion of the central nervous system that originates in the brain, extends down to the lower extremity of the trunk, and is protected by the spinal column.
submental artery
artery that supplies blood to the chin and lower lip.
superficial temporal artery
artery that supplies blood to the muscles of the front, side, and top of the head.
superior labial artery
artery that supplies blood to the upper lip and region of the nose.
supraorbital artery
artery that supplies blood to the upper eyelid and forehead.
supraorbital nerve
nerve that affects the skin of the forehead, scalp, eyebrow, and upper eyelid.
supratrochlear nerve
nerve that affects the skin between the eyes and upper side of the nose.
sympathetic division
part of the autonomic nervous system that stimulates or speeds up activity and prepares the body for stressful situations, such as in running from a dangerous situation, or competiting in a sports event.
systemic (general) circulation
circulation of blood from the heart throughout the body and back again to the heart; also called general circulation.
temporal nerve
nerve affecting the muscles of the temple, side of the forehead, eyebrow, eyelid, and upper part of the cheek.
transverse facial artery
artery that supplies blood to the skin and the masseter.
ulnar artery
artery that supplies blood to the muscle of the little-finger side of the arm and palm of the hand.
ulnar nerve
nerve that affects the little-finger side of the arm and palm of the hand.
valves
structures that temporarily close a passage or permit flow in one direction only.
vascular system
body system consisting of the heart, arteries, veins, and capillaries for the distribution of blood throughout the body.
veins
thin-walled blood vessels that are less elastic than arteries; they contain cuplike valves to prevent backflow and carry impure blood from the various capillaries back to the heart and lungs.
ventricle
the lower thick-walled chamber of the heart.
white blood cells
blood cells that perform the function of destroying disease-causing germs; also called white corpuscles or leukocytes.
zygomatic nerve
nerve that affects the skin of the temple, side of the forehead, and upper part of the cheek.
anabolism
constructive metabolism; the process of building up larger molecules from smaller ones; body stores water, food and oxygen for cells growth and repair.
anatomy
the study of the structure of the body that can be seen with the naked eye and what it is made up of; the science of the structure of organisms or of their parts.
aponeurosis
tendon that connects the occipitalis and the frontalis.
auricularis anterior
muscle in front of the ear that draws the ear forward.
auricularis posterior
muscle behind the ear that draws the ear backward.
auricularis superior
muscle above the ear that draws the ear upward.
belly
middle part of a muscle.
biceps
muscle producing the contour of the front and inner side of the upper arm; lifts the forearm, flexes the elbow and turns palms outward.
buccinator
thin, flat muscle of the cheek between the upper and lower jaw that compresses the cheeks and expels air between the lips.
cardiac muscle
the involuntary muscle that makes up the heart; is striated, allows contraction, is controlled by the autonomic nervous system.
carpus
the wrist; flexible joint composed of a group of eight small, irregular bones (carpals) held together by ligaments.
catabolism
the phase of metabolism that involves the breaking down of complex compounds within the cells into smaller ones, often resulting in the release of energy to perform functions such as muscular efforts, secretions, or digestion.
cell membrane
part of the cell that encloses the protoplasm and permits soluble substances to enter and leave the cell.
cells
basic unit of all living things; minute mass of protoplasm capable of performing all the fundamental functions of life; we have trillions.
cervical vertebrae
the seven bones of the top part of the vertebral column, located in the neck region.
clavicle
collarbone; bone joining the sternum and scapula.
connective tissue
fibrous tissue that binds together, protects, and supports the various parts of the body such as bone, cartilage, and tendons.
corrugator muscle
facial muscle that draws eyebrows down and wrinkles the forehead vertically.
cranium
oval, bony case that protects the brain; formed by eight bones.
cytoplasm
all the protoplasm of a cell except that which is in the nucleus; the watery fluid containing food material necessary for cell growth, reproduction, and self-repair.
deltoid
large, triangular muscle covering the shoulder joint that allows the arm to extend outward and to the side of the body.
deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)
the blueprint material of genetic information; contains all the information that controls the function of every living cell.
depressor labii inferioris
muscle surrounding the lower lip; depresses the lower lip and draws it to one side; also known as quadratus labii inferior.
epicranius
broad muscle that covers the top of the skull; also call occipito-frontalis (occipitalis and frontalis).
epithelial tissue
protective covering on body surfaces, such as the skin, mucous membranes, and lining of the heart; digestive and respiratory organs; and glands.
ethmoid bone
light, spongy bone between the eye sockets that forms part of the nasal cavities.
extensors
muscles that straighten the wrist, hand, and fingers to form a straight line.
flexors
extensor muscles of the wrist, involved in flexing/bending the wrist.
frontal bone
bone forming the forehead
frontalis
anterior or front portion of the epicranium; muscle of the scalp; raises eyebrows, draws scalp forward and causes forehead wrinkles.
histology
study of the structure and composition of tiny structures found in living tissue; microscopic anatomy.
humerus
uppermost and largest bone in the arm, extending from the elbow to the shoulder.
hyoid bone
u-shaped bone at the base of the tongue that supports the tongue and its muscle.
insertion
the point where the skeletal muscle is attached to a bone or other more movable body part; where effects of contraction are seen.
joint
connection between two or more bones of the skeleton.
lacrimal bones
small, thin bones located in the anterior medial wall of the orbits (eye sockets); smallest and most fragile bones of the face.
latissimus dorsi
broad, flat, superficial muscle covering the back of the neck and upper and middle region of the back; controls the shoulder blade and the swinging movements of the arm.
levator anguli oris
muscle that raises the angle of the mouth and draws it inward; a/k/a caninus.
levator labii superioris
muscle surrounding the upper lip; elevates the upper lip and dilates the nostrils, as in expressing distaste; a/k/a quadratus.
mandible
lower jawbone; largest and strongest bone of the face.
masseter
one of the muscles of the jaw used in mastication (chewing).
maxillary bones
form the upper jaw.
mentalis
muscle that elevates the lower lip and raises and wrinkles the skin of the chin.
metabolism
chemical process taking place in living organisms whereby the cells that nourished and carry out their activities.
metacarpus
bones of the palm of the hand; parts of the hand containing five bones between the carpus and phalanges.
mitosis
cells dividing into two new cells (daughter cells); the usual process of cell reproduction of human tissues.
muscular system
body system that covers, shapes, and supports the skeletal tissue; contracts and moves various parts of the body; body has over 600 muscles; are responsible for 40% of the body's weight.
muscular tissue
tissue that contracts and moves various parts of the body; three types are striated, nonstriated and cardiac.
nasal bones
bones that form the bridge of the nose.
nerve tissue
tissue that controls and coordinates all body functions; carries messages to and from the brain; is composed of special cells called neurons, which make up the nerves, brain and spinal cord.
nonstriated muscles
also called involuntary, visceral, or smooth muscles; muscles that function automatically, without conscious will; found in: digestive and circulatory systems, as well as some internal organs.
nucleoplasm
a fluid within the nucleus of the cell that contains proteins and DNA; determines our genetic makeup (including color of eyes, skin and hair).
nucleus
dense, active protoplasm found in the center of the cell; plays an important part in cell reproduction and metabolism; can be compared to the yolk of a raw egg.
occipital bone
hindmost bone of the skull, located below the parietal bones; located back of skull above the nape.
occipitalis
back of the epicranius; muscle that draws the scalp backward.
orbicularis oculi
the ring muscle of the eye socket; closes the eyelid.
orbicularis oris
flat band around the upper and lower lips that compresses, contracts, puckers, and wrinkles the lips.
origin
part of the muscle that does not move; it is attached to the skeleton and is usually part of a skeletal muscle; serves as a basis for action.
palatine bones
the two bones that form the hard palate of the mouth.
parietal bones
bones that form the sides and top of the cranium.
pectoralis major and minor
muscles of the chest that assist the swinging movements of the arm.
phalanges
bones of the fingers or toes (singular: phalanx); there are three in each finger and two in each thumb (14 per hand).
physiology
study of the functions or activities performed by the body's structures.
platysma
broad muscle extending from the chest and shoulder muscles to the side of the chin; responsible for depressing the lower jaw and lip.
procerus
muscle that covers the bridge of the nose, depresses/lowers the eyebrows, and causes wrinkles across the bridge of the nose; is the only muscle attached to the nose.
pronators
muscles that turn the hand inward so that the palm faces downward.
protoplasm
colorless, jellylike substance in cells; contains food elements such as protein, fats, carbohydrates, mineral salts, and water; can be compared to the white of a raw egg.
radius
smaller bone in the forearm on the same side as the thumb.
risorius
muscle of the mouth that draws the corner of the mouth out and back, as in grinning.
scapula
one of a pair of shoulder blades; large, flat triangular bone of the shoulder.
serratus anterior
muscle of the chest that assists in breathing and in raising the arm.
skeletal system
physical foundation of the body, composed of the bones and movable and immovable joints; composed of 206 bones.
sphenoid bone
bone that joins all the bones of the cranium together.
sternocleidomastoideus
muscle of the neck that depresses and rotates the head side to side and up and down; extends alongside the neck from the ear to the collarbone.
sternum
the flat bone, or breastbone, that forms the ventral support of the ribs.
striated muscles
also called voluntary or skeletal muscles; muscles that are controlled by the will; make up a large percentage of body mass; triggered by nerve impulses.
supinator
muscle of the forearm that rotates the radius outward and the palm upward.
temporal bones
bones forming the sides of the head in the ear region.
temporalis
temporal muscle; one of the muscles involved in mastication (chewing).
thorax
the chest; elastic, bony cage that serves as a protective framework for the heart, lungs, and other internal organs; made up of: sternum, spine, 12 pairs of ribs and connective cartilage.
tissue
collection of similar cells that perform a particular function; specialized cells for a specific purpose; there are four types of tissue in the body.
trapezius
muscle that covers the back of the neck and upper and middle region of the back; stabilizes the scapula and shrugs the shoulders.
triangularis
muscle extending alongside the chin that pulls down the corner of the mouth.
triceps
large muscle that covers the entire back of the upper arm and extends the forearm.
turbinal bones
thin layers of spongy bone on either of the outer walls of the nasal depression.
ulna
inner and larger bone of the forearm, attached to the wrist on the side of the little finger.
vomer
a flat, thin bone that forms part of the nasal septum.
zygomatic or malar bones
bones that form the prominence of the cheeks; the cheekbones.
zygomaticus major and minor
muscles extending from the zygomatic bone to the angle of the mouth; they elevate the lip, as in laughing.
organs
structures composed of specialized tissues and performing specific functions.
band lashes
eyelash hairs on a strip that are applied with adhesive to the natural lash line
cake (pancake) makeup
shaped, solid mass; heavy coverage.
complementary colors
primary and secondary colors opposite one another on the color wheel.
concealers
cosmetics used to cover blemishes and discolorations; may be applied before or after foundation.
cool colors
colors with a blue undertone that suggest coolness and are dominated by blues, greens, violets, and blue-reds.
eye tabbing
procedure in which individual synthetic eyelashes are attached directly to a client's own lashes at their base.
greasepaint
heavy makeup used for theatrical purposes.
individual lashes
separate artificial lashes that are applied on top of the lashes one at a time.
matte
dull; not shiny.
primary colors
yellow, red, and blue; fundamental colors that cannot be obtained from a mixture.
secondary colors
colors obtained by mixing equal parts of two primary colors.
tertiary colors
colors formed by mixing equal amounts of secondary color and its neighboring primary color.
warm colors
the range of colors with yellow undertones; from yellow and gold through oranges, red-oranges, most reds, and even some yellow-greens.
anaphoresis
process of desincrustation or forcing negative liquids into the tissues from the negative toward the positive pole; an alkaline, stimulating reaction.
cataphoresis
process of forcing positive, acidic substances into deeper tissues using galvanic current from the positive toward the negative pole; tightens and calms the skin.
desincrustation
galvanic current is used to create an alkaline chemical reaction that emulsifies or liquefies sebum and debris.
electrotherapy
the use of electrical devices for therapeutic benefits.
galvanic current
a constant and direct current, it uses a positive and negative pole to produce chemical reactions, (desincrustation) and ionic reactions (iontophoresis).
high frequency machine
apparatus that utilizes alternating or sinusoidal current to produce a mild to strong heat effect. High frequency is a Tesla current, sometimes called a violet ray.
ion
an atom or molecule that carries an electrical charge.
ionization
the separating of a substance into ions.
iontophoresis
process of introducing ions of water-soluble products into the skin by using an electric current such as the positive and negative poles of a galvanic machine.
Lucas sprayer
atomizer designed to apply plant extracts and other ingredients to the skin.
rotary brush
machine used to lightly exfoliate and stimulate the skin; also helps soften excess oil, dirt, and cell buildup.
saponification
chemical reaction during desincrustation where the current transforms the sebum into soap.
sinusoidal current
alternating current similar to faradic current; produces mechanical contractions and is used during scalp and facial manipulations.
spray machine
spray misting device.
thermolysis
a heat effect; used for permanent hair removal.
vacuum machine
device that vacuums/suctions the skin to remove impurities and stimulate circulation.
Wood's lamp
filtered black light that is used to illuminate skin disorders, fungi, bacterial disorders, and pigmentation.
Loupe
another word for magnifying lamp.
Five diopters
most common magnification.
Steamer
most important machine used in esthetics.
Dr. Jacquet movement
beneficial for oily skin; it helps move sebum out of the follicles and up to the skin's surface by kneading.
effleurage
a soft, continuous stroking movement applied with the fingers and palms in a slow and rhythmic manner.
friction
a rubbing movement; pressure is maintained on the skin to create friction. Chucking, rolling, and wringing are variations of friction.
fulling
a form of petrissage in which the tissue is grasped, gently lifted, and spread out.
manual lymph drainage
stimulates lymph fluid to flow through the lymphatic vessels. This light massage technique helps to cleanse and detoxify the body.
massage
a manual or mechanical manipulation by rubbing, kneading, or other methods that stimulate metabolism and circulation.
petrissage
a kneading movement that stimulates the underlying tissues.
reflexology
treatment of the body through reflex points located on the bottom of the feet.
shiatsu
a form of acupressure.
tapotement
fast tapping, slapping, and hacking movements.
vibration
a rapid shaking movement in which the technician uses the body and shoulders, not just the fingertips, to create the movement.
wash hands
What should estheticians do prior to serving each patron?
70%
Hand sanitizer should have a concentration of how much alcohol?
covered containers
Where should clean and disinfected equipment be kept?
daily
How often should disinfectant used for contamination be changed?
bleach and lysol
What are acceptable germicidal compounds for washing laundry?
dry heat or steam sterilizer
What can sterilization be accomplished with?
121 C or 250 F for 30 minutes
What temperature and length of time should sterilization be at?
iodine, 70% isopropyl alcohol, 6% stabilized hydrogen peroxide
What are acceptable antiseptics?
bandages and disposable gloves
What sanitation supplies should licensees be supplied with?
12 hours
How many continuing education hours are required every two years?
2 hours
Continuing education requirement for laws governing licensees and establishments.
4 hours
Continuing education requirement for safety, sanitation and infection control.
6 hours
Continuing education requirement related to provision of services that are permitted under the license held by licensee.
6 hours
Continuing education requirement to provide laser services.
30% alpha hydroxy, 20% salicylic
Chemical exfoliation is limited to:
48 hours before of after chemical exfoliation
Microdermabrasion services are not provided within what time frame of chemical exfoliation?
not labeled as a prescription devide, FDA approved Class I, closed loop negative pressure system
Microdermabrasion machine must be:
eye protection for client, gloves for operator, pretreatment assessment, written consent
What things must be done before microdermabrasion treatment begins?
6 hours
Continuing education requirement to provide microdermabrasion services.