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Evolution: chpt 19
Terms in this set (29)
What can a paleontologist learn from fossils?
From the fossil record, paleontologist learn about the structure of ancient organisms, their environment, and the ways in which they lived
What are the two ways in which geologists determine the age of fossils?
Radiometric dating and relative dating
How are eras and periods related?
Eras are subdivided into periods
Describe three processes that have affected the history of life on earth
Building mountains, opening coastlines, changing climates, and geological forces have altered habitats of living organisms repeatedly throughout earth history. The actions of living organisms overtime have changed conditions and the land, water, and atmosphere of planet earth
How does variation within a clade affect the clades chance of surviving environmental change?
If the rate of speciation in a clade is equal to or greater than the rate of extinction, the clade will continue to exist. If the rate of extinction an egg plate is greater than the rate of speciation, the clade will eventually become extinct
How was mass extinction different from background extinction?
A background extinction some species become extinct because of the slow but steady process of natural selection in. A mass extinction and events during which many species become extinct over a relatively short period of time
How are punctuated equilibrium different from gradualism?
Gradualism is the evolution of a species by gradual accumulation of small genetic changes over long periods of time. Punctuated equilibrium is a pattern of evolution in which long stable periods are interrupted by brief periods of more rapid change
What is adaptive radiation?
The process by which a single species or a small group of species Evolves over a relatively short time into several different forms that live in different ways
What is coevolution?
The process by which two species of all the in response to changes in each other overtime
What was earths early atmosphere like?
Earths early atmosphere contains little or no oxygen. It was principally composed of carbon dioxide, water vapor, and and nitrogen, with lesser amounts of carbon monoxide, hydrogen sulfide, and hydrogen cyanide.
What does Miller and Urey's experiment tell us about the organic compounds needed for life?
Their experiment suggested how mixtures of the organic compounds necessary for life could have arisen from simpler compounds on a primitive earth
What does the Endosymbiotic theory propose?
The Endosymbiotic theory proposes that a symbiotic relationship evolved over time, between primitive eukaryotic cells and the prokaryotic cells within them.
According to this theory, how did mitochondria evolve?
That mitochondria evolved from Endosymbiotic prokaryotes that were able to use oxygen to generate energy rich ATP. Inside primitive eukaryotic cells, these energy - generating prokaryotes evolved into mitochondria that now power the cells of all multicellular organisms.
What evidence supports this theory?
Lynn Margulis noted that mitochondria and chloroplasts contain DNA similar to bacterial DNA. She noted that mitochondria and chloroplasts have ribosomes whose size and structure closely resemble those of bacteria. Third, she found that mitochondria and chloroplasts, like bacteria, reproduce by binary fission when cells containing them divide by mitosis. All these similarities provide strong evidence of a common ancestry between free - living bacteria and the organelles of living eukaryotic cells.
Why is the development of sexual reproduction so important in the history of life?
The development of sexual reproduction sped up evolutionary change because sexual reproduction increases genetic variation
Scientists who specialize in the study of fossils are called
Sedimentary rocks usually form when layers of small particles are compressed
Using C - 14 to analyze rock layers
Half- Life is the time required for half the Atoms in a radioactive sample to
According to the theory of plate tectonic,
Building mountains, opening coastlines, changing climates, and geological forces have altered habitats of living organisms repeatedly throughout earth history
How does relative dating enable paleontologist to estimate fossils age?
It places rock layers and their fossils in a temporal sequence
How is radioactivity used to date rocks?
It uses the proportion of radioactive to stable isotopes to calculate the age of a sample
What is the geologic time scale, and how was it developed?
It is based on both relative and absolute dating. The major divisions of the geologic time scale are eons, eras, and periods
How have the activities of organisms affected earths environment?
The actions of living organisms overtime have changed conditions in the land, water, and atmosphere of planet earth
The process that produces similar - looking structures in unrelated groups of organisms is
The general term for large - scale evolutionary changes that take place over long periods of time is called
Cladograms that are based on the fossil record always show
Relationships based on shared derived characteristics
Earths early atmosphere contained little or no
Outlines of ancient cells that are preserved well enough to identify them as prokaryotes are
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