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17 terms

Genetics and Heredity

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homozygous (purebred)
When an individual has inherited two alleles for a trait that are the same
heterozygous (hybrid)
when an individual has inherited two alleles for a trait that are different
Punnett square
a tool used to show all the possible offspring combinations from two specific parents
pedigree
a diagram tracing a trait through a family
karyotype
this picture shows all of the chromosomes from an individual, sorted in pairs
genotype
the two alleles that a person has inherited for a trait; example: TT
phenotype
the physical expression of a trait; this is determined by the genotype
DNA
genetic information for an individual; deoxyribonucleic acid
mutation
an unexpected change in a gene or chromosome
genetics
the study of how traits are passed on from parent to offspring
dominant trait
only one allele is needed for trait to be expressed
recessive trait
two alleles are needed for trait to be expressed
Gregor Mendel
father of genetics; he was the first person to study how traits are inherited. He used pea plants as his subjects.
genes
regions of DNA within each chromosome that control for traits
chromosome
in a eukaryotic cell, one of the structures in the nucleus that are made up of DNA and protein; in a prokaryotic cell, the main ring of DNA
heredity
the passing of traits from parents to offspring
trait
physical characteristic (ex: eye color, skin color)