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homozygous (purebred)

When an individual has inherited two alleles for a trait that are the same

heterozygous (hybrid)

when an individual has inherited two alleles for a trait that are different

Punnett square

a tool used to show all the possible offspring combinations from two specific parents


a diagram tracing a trait through a family


this picture shows all of the chromosomes from an individual, sorted in pairs


the two alleles that a person has inherited for a trait; example: TT


the physical expression of a trait; this is determined by the genotype


genetic information for an individual; deoxyribonucleic acid


an unexpected change in a gene or chromosome


the study of how traits are passed on from parent to offspring

dominant trait

only one allele is needed for trait to be expressed

recessive trait

two alleles are needed for trait to be expressed

Gregor Mendel

father of genetics; he was the first person to study how traits are inherited. He used pea plants as his subjects.


regions of DNA within each chromosome that control for traits


in a eukaryotic cell, one of the structures in the nucleus that are made up of DNA and protein; in a prokaryotic cell, the main ring of DNA


the passing of traits from parents to offspring


physical characteristic (ex: eye color, skin color)

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