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Chapter 4 Test
Terms in this set (32)
What is the hydrosphere?
An Earth system that includes all the water on the planet.
What is the water cycle?
A set of processes that keeps water moving from place to place on Earth.
What are the three phases of matter?
Liquid, solids, and gases.
What is the atmosphere?
The layer of gases that surrounds Earth.
Where are the three phases of water located on Earth?
Gasses in the atmosphere, solids in the icecaps and glaciers, and liquids in oceans, lakes, rivers, and groundwater.
What percent of the Earth's water is salt water?
What percent of the Earth's water is fresh water?
Less than 2%
How much of Earth's water is actually available for humans, plants, and animals to consume?
Less than 2%
What is surface water?
Water found on Earth's surface in places like oceans, lakes, rivers, and reservoirs.
What is a reservoir?
A protected artificial or natural lake that is used to store water.
What is a glacier?
A huge mass of ice that forms on land when snow and ice accumulate faster than they melt.
What is groundwater?
Water that collects underground.
What is the water table?
The upper level of water underground; below the water table, all spaces are filled with groundwater.
What phase is water in the most on Earth?
How much of the human body is water?
60 - 75 %
What specifically do we need water for in our bodies?
To keep our blood, brain, and lungs working properly.
Describe 6 uses for water on Earth.
a. It dissolves many things.
b. It carries oxygen that is needed by our bodies and by fish in the water.
c. It erodes rocks and changes the look of the Earth's surface.
d. It is necessary for all agriculture, plants.
e. It is necessary for animals.
f. It is needed in industry and in our homes.
What is another name for the water cycle?
What drives the water cycle?
How are wind and weather involved in the water cycle?
Wind and storms provide forces that cause water to be blown or moved from one place to another.
How is gravity involved in the water cycle?
When water droplets get heavy enough in the clouds, gravity causes them to fall to Earth. It also causes water to run down mountains to the coast. Gravity is the primary force that moves water from Earth's surface, through the ground, to become groundwater.
What are the four main processes of the water cycle?
Evaporation, transpiration, condensation, and precipitation.
What is evaporation?
When liquid water has enough energy to leave the liquid phase and becomes a gas called water vapor.
What is transpiration?
Process in which plants lose water through tiny pores on their leaves.
What is condensation?
When water in its gaseous phase loses energy and changes to the liquid phase.
What is precipitation?
Any form of condensed water vapor in the atmosphere falling back to Earth.
What is surface runoff?
Water that flows over land until it reaches lakes, rivers, and oceans
What is percolation?
Process of liquid moving through a porous substance.
What is an aquifer?
Underground area of sediment and rocks that is filled with groundwater.
Why are aquifers so important to us?
It takes 300-1000 years or more to replenish the supply and we need it to drink and for other processes in the home so it is vitally important that we preserve it by protecting it from pollutants.
What is the watershed?
An area of land that catches all precipitation and surface runoff and collects it in a body of water such as a river.
How do geysers form?
When groundwater comes into contact with hot rock or magma below the Earth's surface. The hot rock heats up the water which shoots up through a break in the Earth's surface.