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Psych chapter 9
Terms in this set (42)
associations are made between a natural stimulus and a neutral stimulus.
The tuning fork was a neutral stimulus, or one that had nothing to do with the response (salivating) prior to conditioning.
automatic or involuntary thing that happened. It causes the response.
is a reaction that occurs naturally and automatically when the unconditioned stimulus is presented.
is learned reaction to a conditioned stimulus.
responding similarly to a range of similar stimuli.
the ability to respond differently to similar but distinct stimuli.
the gradual disappearance of a conditioned response when the conditioned stimulus is repeatedly presented without the unconditioned stimulus.
learning from the consequences of behavior.
is a stimulus or event that follows a response and increases the likelihood that the response will be repeated.
is one that satisfies a biological need such as hunger, thirst, or sleep.
is one that has been paired with a primary reinforcer and through classical conditioning has acquired value and become a secondary reinforcer.
reinforcement depends on a specified quantity of responses, such as rewarding every fourth response.
is a pattern of reinforcement in which an unpredictable number of responses are required before reinforcement can be obtained.
is a pattern of reinforcement in which a specified amount of time must elapse before a response will elicit reinforcement.
a pattern of reinforcement emerges in which changing amounts of time must elapse before a response will obtain reinforcement.
is a process in which reinforcement is used to sculpt new responses out of old ones.
is a series of learned reactions that follow one another in sequence, each reaction producing the signal for the next.
is a process of influencing behavior by means of unpleasant stimuli.
is increasing the strength of a given response by removing or preventing a painful stimulus when the response occurs.
a person's behavior causes an unpleasant event to stop.
the person's behavior has the effect of preventing an unpleasant situation from happening.
could learn aggressive behaviors just by watching a model perform those behaviors.
is a form of altering behavior that involves mental processes and may result from observation or imitation
an alteration of a behavioral tendency that is not demonstrated by an immediate, observable change in behavior.
is a condition in which repeated attempts to control a situation fail, resulting in the belief that the situation is uncontrollable.
or the concept of learning by imitating others and copying behavior.
is the systematic application of learning principles to change people's actions and feelings.
are systems in which a secondary reinforcer is established and gains value with participants. Eventually, the participants in the token economy will work very hard to earn the tokens.
Who is credited with describing the concept of conditioning
How did Pavlov discover conditioning?
He rang a tuning fork immediately before placing meat powder on the dog's tongue.
What is the most effective amount of time to wait after presenting the neutral stimulus to present the unconditioned stimulus?
It seemed that presenting the Conditioned Stimulus about half a second before the Unconditioned Stimulus would yield the strongest associations between the tuning fork and the meat.
when the conditioned stimulus is presented without the unconditioned stimulus enough times that the conditioned stimulus stops eliciting the conditioned response
Difference between classical conditioning and operant conditioning
•In classical conditioning, the experimenter presents the CS and UCS independent of the participant's behavior. The UCR is elicited and reactions to the CS are observed.
- in operant conditioning, the participant must engage in a behavior in order for the programmed outcome to occur. In other words, operant conditioning is the study of how voluntary behavior is affected by its consequences.
the psychologist most closely associated with operant conditioning?
Disadvantages of punishment
aversive stimuli can produce unwanted side effects such as rage, aggression, and fear.
Baby that was taught through classical conditioning to fear animals
Reward without effort
Effort without reward
Taking something away
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