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110 terms

HAP Ch 16 Respiratory System Review Cards

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alveolar ducts
fine tubes that carry air to air sacs of the lungs
alveoli
an air sac of a lung; sac-like structure
anoxia
absence or deficiency of oxygen within tissues
apnea
temporary cessation of breathing
asphyxia
oxygen deficiency and excess carbon dioxide in blood and tissues
atelectasis
collapse of a lung or part of a lung
bradypnea
abnormally slow breathing
bronchial tree
the bronchi and their branches that carry air from the trachea to the alveoli of the lungs
bronchiole
a small branch of a bronchus within the lung
bronchiolectasis
chronic dilation of the bronchioles
bronchitis
inflammation of the bronchial linings
carbaminohemoglobin
compound formed by the union of carbon dioxide and hemoglobin
carbonic anhydrase
enzyme that catalyzes the reaction between carbon dioxide and water to form carbonic acid
Cheyne-Stokes respiration
irregular breathing consisting of a series of shallow breaths that increase in depth and rate, followed by breaths that decrease in depth and rate
dyspnea
difficulty breathing
epiglottis
flaplike, cartilaginous structure at the back of the tongue near the entrance to the trachea
eupnea
normal breathing
expiration
expulsion of air from the lungs
glottis
slit-like opening between the true vocal folds or vocal cords
hemoglobin
oxygen carrying pigment in red blood cells
hemothorax
blood in the pleural cavity
hypercapnia
excess carbon dioxide in the blood
hyperoxia
excess oxygen in the blood
hyperpnea
increase in the depth and rate of breathing
hyperventilation
prolonged, rapid, and deep breathing
hypoxemia
deficiency in blood oxygenation
hypoxia
diminished availability of oxygen in tissues
inspiration
breathing in; inhalation
larynx
structure between the pharynx and trachea that houses the vocal cords
lobar pneumonia
pneumonia that affects an entire lung lobe
nasal cavity
space in the nose
nasal conchae
shell-like bone extending out from the wall of the nasal cavity; a turbinate bone
nasal septum
a wall of bone and cartilage that separates the nasal cavity into two parts
oxyhemoglobin
a hemoglobin molecule that has bon an oxygen atom
paranasal sinus
air-filled cavities in a cranial or facial bone lined with mucous membrane and connected to the nasal cavity
parietal pleura
membrane that lines the inner wall of the thoracic cavity
partial pressure
the pressure one gas produces in a mixture of gases
pharynx
part of the digestive tube posterior to the nasal and oral cavities, as well as the larynx
pleural cavity
potential space between pleural membranes
pleurisy
inflammation of the pleural membranes
pneumoconiosis
accumulation of particles from the environment in the lungs and the reaction of tissues to them
respiration
cellular process that releases energy from nutrients; breathing
respiratory capacities
the sum of two or more respiratory volumes
surface tension
the force that adheres moist membranes due to the attraction of water molecules
surfactant
substance produced by the lungs that reduces the surface tension in alveoli
trachea
tubular organ that leads from the larynx to the bronchi
visceral pleura
membrane that covers the surfaces of the lungs
larynx
-voice box
-conducts air in and out; prevents objects from entering; and houses the vocal cords
-includes: thyroid (Adam's apple), cricoid, and epiglottic cartilages
pleural cavity
potential space between the visceral and parietal pleurae
alveoli
-simple squamous epithelial cells
-oxygen diffuses through alveolar walls and enters blood in nearby capillaries and carbon dioxide diffuses in
-adult lung has ~300 million alveoli providing a total surface area half the size of a tennis court
visceral pleural
layer of serous membrane that firmly attaches to each lung surface and fold back to become the parietal pleura
right lung
larger and is divided into three lobes
pharynx
-throat
-passageway for food traveling from the oral cavity to the esophagus and for air passing between the nasal cavity and larynx
-helps produce the sounds of speech
partial pressure
-amount of pressure each gas in a mixture contributes
-directly proportional to the concentration of the gas in the mixture
hiccup
-sudden inspiration due to a spasmodic contraction of the diaphragm while the glottis is closed
-air striking the vocal folds cause the sound
laryngitis
-hoarseness or lack of voice
-mucous membrane of the larynx becomes inflamed and swollen preventing the vocal cords from vibrating as freely as before
expiratory
-exhalation
-a passive process that comes from the elastic recoil of tissues and from surface tension
nasal cavity
hollow space behind the nose
carbon dioxide transfer
(1) carbon dioxide dissolved in plasma
(2) bonding to hemoglobin
(3) part of a bicarbonate ion
coughing
-take a deep breath, closing the glottis and forcing air upward from the lungs against the closure
-glottis is suddenly opened and a blast of air is forced upward
left lung
smaller and is divided into two lobes
sneeze
like a cough but clears the upper respiratory passages rather than the lower ones
yawning
aid respiration by providing an occasional deep breath
lower respiratory tract
larynx, trachea, bronchial tree, lungs
upper respiratory tract
nose, nasal cavity, paranasal sinuses, pharynx
spirometry
measures of air volume
respiratory center
-in the brain stem and controls both inspiration and expiration
-medullary rhythmicity area
-pneumotaxic area
bronchial tree
primary bronchi -> bronchioles -> alveolar ducts -> alveolar sacs -> alveoli
deviated septum
-as a person ages, the septum bends toward one side
-may block nasal cavity making breathing difficult
external respiration
gas exchange between blood and air in the lungs
nasal septum
divides the nasal cavity into two sides
internal respiration
gas exchange between blood and body cells
true vocal cords
-air forced between these generates sound waves
-increased tension gives a higher pitch
-the stronger the force the louder the sound
inspiration
atmospheric pressure due to the weight of the air is the force that moves air into the lungs
glottis
when food or liquid is swallowed, muscles close the glottis and prevents food from entering the trachea
epiglottis
-a flap-like structure that allows air to enter the larynx
-during swallowing it presses downward to partially cover the opening into the larynx
factors affecting breathing
-chemosensitive areas
-inflation reflex
-emotional upset: fear and pain increase breathing rate
trachea
-windpipe
-20 C-shaped pieces of hyaline cartilage make up a tube that extend downward in from of the esophagus and splits into the bronchi
paranasal sinuses
-air-filled spaces that reduce the weight of the skull
-are resonant chambers that affect the quality of the voice
histotoxic hypoxia
defect at the cellular level
factors affecting the amount of oxygen released
more is released as: (1) blood concentration of carbon dioxide increase (2) blood becomes more acidic (3) blood temperature increases
ischemic hypoxia
inadequate blood flow
total lung capacity
-total volume of air that the lungs can hold
= vital capacity + residual volume
-varies with age, sex, and body size
pneumotaxic area
-controls breathing rate
-transmits impulses that inhibit the inspiratory bursts from the dorsal respiratory group
-when inhibition is strong-> breathing rate increases
ventilation
movement of air in and out of the lungs
vital capacity
-maximum volume of air that can be exhaled after taking the deepest breath possible
= inspiratory reserve volume + tidal volume + expiratory reserve volume
4 processes in respiration
(1) ventilation (2) external respiration (3) gas transport in blood between the lungs and body cells (4) internal respiration
hypoxia
-deficiency of oxygen reaching the tissues
-caused by: hypoxemia, anemic hypoxia, ischemic hypoxia, and histotoxic hypoxia
inflation reflex
-helps regulate depth of breathing
-occurs when stretch receptors are stimulated and impulses travel so duration of inspiration is decreased to prevent over inflation of the lungs
non-respiratory movements
-used to clear air passages or to express emotional feelings
-can be a reflex or voluntary
-includes: coughing, sneeze, laughing, crying, hiccup, and yawn
ventral respiratory group
quiet during normal breathing but active when more forceful breathing is required
inspiratory reserve volume
during a forced inspiration, the extra volume of air in addition to the resting tidal volume that enters the lungs
inspiratory capacity
-maximum volume of air that can be inhaled following exhalation of tidal volume
= tidal volume + inspiratory reserve volume
bicarbonate ions
-accounts for 70%
-carbon dioxide reacts with water to form carbonic acid
-carbonic acid breaks down into H+ and HCO3-
-hydrogen ions combine with hemoglobin and bicarbonate ions diffuse out
respiratory volume
amount of air that enters the lungs during inspiration
tidal volume
volume of air that enters or leaves during a single respiratory cycle
residual volume
-air that remains in the lungs after the most forceful expiration
-in the lungs at all times
oxygen transport
1-2% dissolves in plasma
98-99% combines with iron atoms of hemoglobin molecules
medullary rhythmicity area
includes dorsal and ventral respiratory groups
oxyhemoglobin
oxygen bonds in oxyhemoglobin are unstable and as oxygen decreases, the molecules release oxygen, which diffuses into nearby cells
anemic hypoxia
decreased ability of the blood to transport oxygen
nasal conchae
divides the cavity into passageways and supports the mucous membrane by increasing its surface area
parietal pleura
forms part of the mediastinum and lines the inner wall of the thoracic cavity
CO2 and hemoglobin
-accounts for 23%
-carbon dioxide bonds with the amino groups or protein parts of hemoglobin forming carbaminohemoglobin
-oxygen and carbon dioxide do NOT compete for binding sites
expiratory reserve volume
air expelled beyond the resting tidal volume
mucous membrane
-pseudostratified ciliated epithelium with goblet cells
-extensive network of blood vessels
-as air passes over the membrane it is warmed and moistened
-sticky mucus secreted traps dust and other particles in the air
dorsal respiratory group
-controls the basic rhythm of inspiration
-increase the volume of air entering the lungs
-remains inactive during expiration
functional residual capacity
-volume of air that remains in the lungs following exhalation of tidal volume
=expiratory reserve volume + residual volume
hypoxemia
decreased arterial oxygen
false vocal cords
helps close the airway during swallowing