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alveolar ducts

fine tubes that carry air to air sacs of the lungs

alveoli

an air sac of a lung; sac-like structure

anoxia

absence or deficiency of oxygen within tissues

apnea

temporary cessation of breathing

asphyxia

oxygen deficiency and excess carbon dioxide in blood and tissues

atelectasis

collapse of a lung or part of a lung

bradypnea

abnormally slow breathing

bronchial tree

the bronchi and their branches that carry air from the trachea to the alveoli of the lungs

bronchiole

a small branch of a bronchus within the lung

bronchiolectasis

chronic dilation of the bronchioles

bronchitis

inflammation of the bronchial linings

carbaminohemoglobin

compound formed by the union of carbon dioxide and hemoglobin

carbonic anhydrase

enzyme that catalyzes the reaction between carbon dioxide and water to form carbonic acid

Cheyne-Stokes respiration

irregular breathing consisting of a series of shallow breaths that increase in depth and rate, followed by breaths that decrease in depth and rate

dyspnea

difficulty breathing

epiglottis

flaplike, cartilaginous structure at the back of the tongue near the entrance to the trachea

eupnea

normal breathing

expiration

expulsion of air from the lungs

glottis

slit-like opening between the true vocal folds or vocal cords

hemoglobin

oxygen carrying pigment in red blood cells

hemothorax

blood in the pleural cavity

hypercapnia

excess carbon dioxide in the blood

hyperoxia

excess oxygen in the blood

hyperpnea

increase in the depth and rate of breathing

hyperventilation

prolonged, rapid, and deep breathing

hypoxemia

deficiency in blood oxygenation

hypoxia

diminished availability of oxygen in tissues

inspiration

breathing in; inhalation

larynx

structure between the pharynx and trachea that houses the vocal cords

lobar pneumonia

pneumonia that affects an entire lung lobe

nasal cavity

space in the nose

nasal conchae

shell-like bone extending out from the wall of the nasal cavity; a turbinate bone

nasal septum

a wall of bone and cartilage that separates the nasal cavity into two parts

oxyhemoglobin

a hemoglobin molecule that has bon an oxygen atom

paranasal sinus

air-filled cavities in a cranial or facial bone lined with mucous membrane and connected to the nasal cavity

parietal pleura

membrane that lines the inner wall of the thoracic cavity

partial pressure

the pressure one gas produces in a mixture of gases

pharynx

part of the digestive tube posterior to the nasal and oral cavities, as well as the larynx

pleural cavity

potential space between pleural membranes

pleurisy

inflammation of the pleural membranes

pneumoconiosis

accumulation of particles from the environment in the lungs and the reaction of tissues to them

respiration

cellular process that releases energy from nutrients; breathing

respiratory capacities

the sum of two or more respiratory volumes

surface tension

the force that adheres moist membranes due to the attraction of water molecules

surfactant

substance produced by the lungs that reduces the surface tension in alveoli

trachea

tubular organ that leads from the larynx to the bronchi

visceral pleura

membrane that covers the surfaces of the lungs

larynx

-voice box
-conducts air in and out; prevents objects from entering; and houses the vocal cords
-includes: thyroid (Adam's apple), cricoid, and epiglottic cartilages

pleural cavity

potential space between the visceral and parietal pleurae

alveoli

-simple squamous epithelial cells
-oxygen diffuses through alveolar walls and enters blood in nearby capillaries and carbon dioxide diffuses in
-adult lung has ~300 million alveoli providing a total surface area half the size of a tennis court

visceral pleural

layer of serous membrane that firmly attaches to each lung surface and fold back to become the parietal pleura

right lung

larger and is divided into three lobes

pharynx

-throat
-passageway for food traveling from the oral cavity to the esophagus and for air passing between the nasal cavity and larynx
-helps produce the sounds of speech

partial pressure

-amount of pressure each gas in a mixture contributes
-directly proportional to the concentration of the gas in the mixture

hiccup

-sudden inspiration due to a spasmodic contraction of the diaphragm while the glottis is closed
-air striking the vocal folds cause the sound

laryngitis

-hoarseness or lack of voice
-mucous membrane of the larynx becomes inflamed and swollen preventing the vocal cords from vibrating as freely as before

expiratory

-exhalation
-a passive process that comes from the elastic recoil of tissues and from surface tension

nasal cavity

hollow space behind the nose

carbon dioxide transfer

(1) carbon dioxide dissolved in plasma
(2) bonding to hemoglobin
(3) part of a bicarbonate ion

coughing

-take a deep breath, closing the glottis and forcing air upward from the lungs against the closure
-glottis is suddenly opened and a blast of air is forced upward

left lung

smaller and is divided into two lobes

sneeze

like a cough but clears the upper respiratory passages rather than the lower ones

yawning

aid respiration by providing an occasional deep breath

lower respiratory tract

larynx, trachea, bronchial tree, lungs

upper respiratory tract

nose, nasal cavity, paranasal sinuses, pharynx

spirometry

measures of air volume

respiratory center

-in the brain stem and controls both inspiration and expiration
-medullary rhythmicity area
-pneumotaxic area

bronchial tree

primary bronchi -> bronchioles -> alveolar ducts -> alveolar sacs -> alveoli

deviated septum

-as a person ages, the septum bends toward one side
-may block nasal cavity making breathing difficult

external respiration

gas exchange between blood and air in the lungs

nasal septum

divides the nasal cavity into two sides

internal respiration

gas exchange between blood and body cells

true vocal cords

-air forced between these generates sound waves
-increased tension gives a higher pitch
-the stronger the force the louder the sound

inspiration

atmospheric pressure due to the weight of the air is the force that moves air into the lungs

glottis

when food or liquid is swallowed, muscles close the glottis and prevents food from entering the trachea

epiglottis

-a flap-like structure that allows air to enter the larynx
-during swallowing it presses downward to partially cover the opening into the larynx

factors affecting breathing

-chemosensitive areas
-inflation reflex
-emotional upset: fear and pain increase breathing rate

trachea

-windpipe
-20 C-shaped pieces of hyaline cartilage make up a tube that extend downward in from of the esophagus and splits into the bronchi

paranasal sinuses

-air-filled spaces that reduce the weight of the skull
-are resonant chambers that affect the quality of the voice

histotoxic hypoxia

defect at the cellular level

factors affecting the amount of oxygen released

more is released as: (1) blood concentration of carbon dioxide increase (2) blood becomes more acidic (3) blood temperature increases

ischemic hypoxia

inadequate blood flow

total lung capacity

-total volume of air that the lungs can hold
= vital capacity + residual volume
-varies with age, sex, and body size

pneumotaxic area

-controls breathing rate
-transmits impulses that inhibit the inspiratory bursts from the dorsal respiratory group
-when inhibition is strong-> breathing rate increases

ventilation

movement of air in and out of the lungs

vital capacity

-maximum volume of air that can be exhaled after taking the deepest breath possible
= inspiratory reserve volume + tidal volume + expiratory reserve volume

4 processes in respiration

(1) ventilation (2) external respiration (3) gas transport in blood between the lungs and body cells (4) internal respiration

hypoxia

-deficiency of oxygen reaching the tissues
-caused by: hypoxemia, anemic hypoxia, ischemic hypoxia, and histotoxic hypoxia

inflation reflex

-helps regulate depth of breathing
-occurs when stretch receptors are stimulated and impulses travel so duration of inspiration is decreased to prevent over inflation of the lungs

non-respiratory movements

-used to clear air passages or to express emotional feelings
-can be a reflex or voluntary
-includes: coughing, sneeze, laughing, crying, hiccup, and yawn

ventral respiratory group

quiet during normal breathing but active when more forceful breathing is required

inspiratory reserve volume

during a forced inspiration, the extra volume of air in addition to the resting tidal volume that enters the lungs

inspiratory capacity

-maximum volume of air that can be inhaled following exhalation of tidal volume
= tidal volume + inspiratory reserve volume

bicarbonate ions

-accounts for 70%
-carbon dioxide reacts with water to form carbonic acid
-carbonic acid breaks down into H+ and HCO3-
-hydrogen ions combine with hemoglobin and bicarbonate ions diffuse out

respiratory volume

amount of air that enters the lungs during inspiration

tidal volume

volume of air that enters or leaves during a single respiratory cycle

residual volume

-air that remains in the lungs after the most forceful expiration
-in the lungs at all times

oxygen transport

1-2% dissolves in plasma
98-99% combines with iron atoms of hemoglobin molecules

medullary rhythmicity area

includes dorsal and ventral respiratory groups

oxyhemoglobin

oxygen bonds in oxyhemoglobin are unstable and as oxygen decreases, the molecules release oxygen, which diffuses into nearby cells

anemic hypoxia

decreased ability of the blood to transport oxygen

nasal conchae

divides the cavity into passageways and supports the mucous membrane by increasing its surface area

parietal pleura

forms part of the mediastinum and lines the inner wall of the thoracic cavity

CO2 and hemoglobin

-accounts for 23%
-carbon dioxide bonds with the amino groups or protein parts of hemoglobin forming carbaminohemoglobin
-oxygen and carbon dioxide do NOT compete for binding sites

expiratory reserve volume

air expelled beyond the resting tidal volume

mucous membrane

-pseudostratified ciliated epithelium with goblet cells
-extensive network of blood vessels
-as air passes over the membrane it is warmed and moistened
-sticky mucus secreted traps dust and other particles in the air

dorsal respiratory group

-controls the basic rhythm of inspiration
-increase the volume of air entering the lungs
-remains inactive during expiration

functional residual capacity

-volume of air that remains in the lungs following exhalation of tidal volume
=expiratory reserve volume + residual volume

hypoxemia

decreased arterial oxygen

false vocal cords

helps close the airway during swallowing

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