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thanks Mish

the body's Defenses

anatomical defenses
skin,mucus membrane, Cilia, Normal flora,Body responses


First line of defense agaiinst organisms. acts as a physical and chemical barrier

muccous membrane

Works together with cilia


(hair) this is do, not all organism are let into the body(trapes them)

normal flora

No place for the organism to go or to attach

body response

Coughing,sneezing, voimiting, and diarrahra

Chemical Defenses

Body fluids, a)saliva b) bile c)gastric juices (highly acidic) d) sweat e) oil (suffocates organism) f) tears (lysosomes) flushes eyes


Substance that will destroy gram positive (staining) bacteria found in tears.


Naturally accruing substances produced in the body that will fight virus


Fights off whatever white blood cells are not able to

physiological Defenses

A)sweat-cool off the body b) phagocytosis c) peristalsis-waves like rhythmic contraction that force a material though a lymphatic b)lymphatic- (a) actually produces antibodies cells and certain WBC's in the bone marrow(b) cleans the lump fluid that goes back into the body (d)collateral cirulation (e) fever- increase in body temperature(a) slows growth of organism(b) increase in phagocytosis . Inflammation- body's response to injury.

Three parts of inflammatory process

a) to destroy the iirrtating or injurious agent and resverse it and it's products from the body b) to limit the extension of infection to the body c) mechanism of repair and replacement of damaged tissue

local effects seen in the with infection

a) inflammation a) redness b) swelling c) heat d) pain

general effects seen in the body with infection

a) fever b) fatigue c) tachycardia - increase in heart rate d) toxicity -scientific term for aches and pain e) increase in metabolic rate - when body is fighting infection, organism have to work harder f) leucoemia- decease in WBC count g)leucocytosis- increase in WBC count

Direct modes of transmission

(when an infections spread, more or less directly from person to person or animal to person)


a) physical contact (direct contact) b) sexual transmition d)placental ( mother to fetus)e) droplet infection(droplet spray) - infection of micooganism that are casted off in fine spray from mouth and nose during talking ,laughing, coughing( most common mode)

indicerct modes of transmission

Contaminationed formites( anything not living) b) contaminated food and water c) dirty hands d) dirt and filth e) droplet nuclei-particulars of dried secretions from the mouth and nose, that may float in the air for a considerate amount of time over long distances f) art hod vectors- insects (a) mechanical vector- an arthropod that holds the pathogen on their feet or other body part(b) Biological vector- an arthropod that bites a person and transmits the infected blood

Ports of entry

Mouth,nose, skin, placenta, urogenital track

ports of exit

Buccal secretions, nasal secretions,blood,pus,sputum, semen, vaginal secretions, tears,urine, feces

four factors that influence the current of infection

Immunity,virulence of organism,proper portal of entry, numbers of organism presnt

Bony incasements



The bodies response to injury, something's wronging there is inflammation. Three part to processs- localize the vascular and caller response at the site of injury. Body reaction , repair and restore back to normal

Three functions

To distory the entering injurious agent. Limit the extension to the body .repair and replacement of the damage tissue

Arthropod vector

a) mechanical vector- Arthropods(insects) that hold the pathogen on their feet or other parts of their body and accidentally transmit the pathogen b) biological vector- an arthropod that pathogen or carrier ingest some of the blood, another person and transmits the pathogen


Increase in temperature two benefits 1)slows the growth b) increases phagocytosis

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