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411 terms

Combined U. S. History SOL terms

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Invasion of Poland (1939)
Germany invaded, breaking their agreement, so Britain and France declared war, starting World War II
Pearl Harbor (1941)
United States military base on Hawaii that was bombed by Japan, bringing the United States into World War II. Pearl Harbor was attacked on December 7, 1941.
"a date that will live in infamy"
regarding the attack on pearl harbor, FDR asked in his address to congress for a declaration of war
Battle of Britain (1940)
the prolonged bombardment of British cities by the German air force during World War II and the aerial combat that accompanied it
Lend-Lease Act
The act allowed America to sell, lend or lease arms or other supplies to nations considered "vital to the defense of the United States."
Non-aggression Pact
1939-Secret agreement between German leader Hitler and Soviet Leader Stalin not to attack one another and to divide Poland
Allies
U.S., Great Britain, and Soviet Union in WWII
Axis Powers
in World War II, the nations of Germany, Italy, and Japan, which had formed an alliance in 1936.
Defeat Hitler first
Allied military strategy in the European Theater
El Alamein
Battle in Egypt. Allies won and prevented the Germans from taking over oil fields and the Suez Canal
Battle of Stalingrad
A 1942-1943 battle of World War II, in which German forces were defeated in their attempt to capture the city of Stalingrad in the Soviet Union; turning point of war in Eastern Europe
D-Day
June 6, 1944...the day the Allies invaded Normandy, France during WWII. Allies were successful and began to liberate France. Turning point of the war in Western Europe.
Island Hopping
strategy used by the US in the Pacific theater, moving from island to island and eventually invading Japan
Battle of Midway "Miracle at Midway"
U.S. naval victory over the Japanese fleet in June 1942. It marked a turning point in World War II.
Iwo Jima
One of the Bloodiest battles in WWII, a fight to the death for Japanese soldiers, as the Americans were coming closer to Japan
Battle of Okinawa
Final island the US captured as they approached Japan. Convinced the U.S. to end the war without invading Japan.
Hiroshima
City in Japan, the first to be destroyed by an atomic bomb, on August 6, 1945. The bombing hastened the end of World War II.
Nagasaki
Japanese city in which the second atomic bomb was dropped (August 9, 1945). Japan surrendered just a few days later, ending WWII.
Harry Truman
US president who made the decision to drop atomic bombs on Japan to end the war
Tuskegee Airmen
African American fighter pilots from WWII. Served in segregated units.
Nisei Regiments
Segregated combats untis of WWII made up of Japanese-Americans.
Navajo
Native American language used by the U.S. military in WWII as a code against the Japanese.
Rosie the Riveter
symbol of American women who went to work in factories during the war
Geneva Convention
A set of international standards of conduct for treating prisoners of war; revised after WWII.
Bataan Death March
Brutal march of American and Filipino prisoners by Japanese soldiers in 1942
Holocaust
the organized killing of European Jews, Gypsies, communists, the disabled, and others by the Nazis during WWII
Final solution
the Nazi program of exterminating Jews under Hitler
genocide
systematic killing of a racial, political, religious, or cultural group
Nuremberg Trials
Trials of the Nazi leaders, showed that people are responsible for their actions, even in wartime
World War II began with this event
Hitler's invasion of Poland in 1939
Isolationism
A national policy of avoiding involvement in world affairs which the U. S. held at the beginning of WWII.
Who said that helping the allies in WWII was like , "lending a garden hose to a next-door neighbor whose house is on fire."
Franklin D. Roosevelt's quote about helping the allies in WWII.
Manchuria
Province in northeast China invaded by Japan in September 1931.
Dwight Eisenhower
United States general who supervised the invasion of Normandy and the defeat of Nazi Germany.
Atomic Bomb
bomb dropped by an American bomber on Hiroshima and Nagasaki destroying both cities.
POW
prisoner of war
Kamikazi
Japanese suicide pilots
Undesirables
Hitler called Jews, Slavs, gypsies, homosexuals, and special needs people this
New England Colonies Economic System
The colonies with the economic system involving shipbuilding, fishing, lumbering, small scale subsistence farming.
Puritans
A religious group who wanted to purify the Church of England. They came to America for religious freedom and settled Massachusetts Bay.
The Middle Colonies
New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, and Delaware.
Middle Colonies Economic System
The colonies with the economic system of shipbuilding, small-scale farming and trading.
Major cities in the early colonies
New York and Philidelphia
Southern Colonies Economis System
The colonies witht the economic system of large plantations and small subsistence farming.
Plantation
An estate where cash crops are grown on a large scale.
cash crop
Farm crop raised to be sold for money.
The three main cash crops in the early Southern Colonies
Tabacco, Indigo and Rice
Free Enterprise
Economic system in which individuals and businesses are allowed to compete for profit with a minimum of government interference.
New England colonial society is based on?
Religious standing.
Rhode Island
Founded by dissenters fleeing persecution from Purtians in Massachusetts.
Middle colonies religious values.
The colonies home to mutiple religious groups who generally believed in religious tolerance.
Quakers
Religious group who settled Pennsylvania - very tolerant and nonviolent.
Huguenots
French protestants influenced by John Calvin in the coloney of New York .
Jews
The followers of Judaism are called this and were located in the coloney of New York.
Presbyterians
Members of a Protestant church governed by Presbyters, elders, and founded on the teachings of John Knox in the coloney of New Jersey.
Entrepreneurs
Individuals who start new businesses, introduce new products, and improve management techniques. Many found in the Middle Colonies.
Virginia and Southern Colonies social structure was based on?
This colonies social structure was based on family status and the ownership of land.
Church of England
Large Land owners in in the eastern lowlands of the South maintained an allegiance to this church.
Subsistence Farming
A farm that produces enough food for the family with a small additional amount for trade.
Great Awakening
A religious movement that swept both Europe and the colonies during the mid-1700s. It led to the rapid growth of evangelical religions such as Methodist and Baptist and challenged the established religous and governmental order. Laid one of the foundations for the American Revolution.
Athenian
Direct Democracy model like a town meeting in New England.
Indentured Servants
Colonists who received free passage to North America in exchange for working without pay for a certain number of years.
Direct Democracy
A form of government in which citizens rule directly and not through representatives.
Slavery
Plantations in the Southern Colonies relied on this labor force for their plantations.
Middle Passage
The middle portion of the triangular trade that brought African slaves to the Americas.
Jazz
a style of dance music popular in the 1920s
Fireside Chats
series of radio talks in which FDR explained his policies in a casual style
Scopes Trial
1925 trial in Tennessee on the issue of teaching evolution in public schools
Flappers
Young women of the 1920s that behaved and dressed in a radical fashion
19th Amendment
gave women the right to vote in the U.S.
Prohibition
the period from 1920 to 1933 when the sale of alcoholic beverages was prohibited in the United States by a constitutional amendment
speakeasies
bars that operated illegally during the time of Prohibition
overspeculation
the excessive and risky investment in stocks, in the hopes of making money quickly. A major cause of the Great Depression.
buying on margin
paying a small percentage of a stock's price as a down payment and borrowing the rest. A major cause of the Great Depression.
Stock Market Crash of 1929
Plunge in stock market prices that marked the beginning of the Great Depression
Hawley-Smoot Tariff
an especially high import tariff passed by congress in 1930. It made the Great Depression worse by slowing international trade.
New Deal
The name of President Franklin Roosevelt's program for getting the United States out of the depression
WPA
Work Progress Administration: Massive work relief program funded projects ranging from construction to acting; part of the New Deal
AAA
Agricultural Adjustment Administration: attempted to regulate agricultural production through farm subsidies; part of the New Deal
FDIC
A federally sponsored corporation that insures accounts in national banks and other qualified institutions. Part of the New Deal and still around today.
Social Security Act
created a tax on workers and employers. That money provided monthly pensions for the retired and others unable to work. Part of the New Deal and still around today.
Mass Media
Forms of communication, such as newspapers and radio, that reach millions of people.
Darwin's Theory
This theory of evolution based on natural selection is the core theme of biology.
Klu Klux Klan (KKK)
The KKK was a secret racist organization, formed in 1865, thay worked to keep the freedmen from voting or exercising their other rights after the Civil War.
Bankruptcies
State of having legally declared inability to pay debts.
Great Depression
A severe, world wide economic crisis which lasted from the end of 1929 to the outbreak of World War II.
Federal Reserve
Controls America's money supply, by controlling the interest rates of banks, also america's central bank.
Protective Tariff
A tax on imported goods that raises the price of imports so people will buy U. S. goods.
Foreclosure
The legal proceedings initiated by a creditor to repossess the collateral for loan that is in default. This happened to a lot of farmers during the Great Depression.
Migration
The movement of persons from one country or locality to another.
Franklin D. Rossevelt
U.S. president during the Great Depression and WW2.
Relief, Recovery, Reform
The three goals of FDR's New Deal.
Who said, "We have nothing to fear, but feat itself'?
Franklin Delanor Roosevelt's famous quote about fear.
Open Door Policy
A policy proposed by the US in 1899, under which ALL nations would have equal opportunities to trade in China.
Dollar Diplomacy
President Taft's policy of linking American business interests to diplomatic interests abroad, especially in Latin America
Spanish American War
War fought between the US and Spain in Cuba and the Philippines. It lasted less than 3 months and resulted in Cuba's independence as well as the US annexing Puerto Rico, Guam, and the Philippines.
Panama Canal
The canal that joined the Pacific and Atlantic Ocean. Theodore Roosevelt played a key role in its completion and encouraged Panama to get its independence from Columbia .
John Hay
The secretary of state who negotiated the idea of the open door policy.
Woodrow Wilson
U.S. President, who led USA into WWI. He proposed the 14 points. He attended the peace conference at Versailles.
Fourteen Points
the war aims outlined by President Wilson in 1918, which he believed would promote lasting peace; called for self-determination, freedom of the seas, free trade, end to secret agreements, reduction of arms and a league of nations
Self-determination
the right of people to choose their own form of government
Mandate system
Allocation of former German colonies and Ottoman possessions to the victorious powers after World War I, to be administered under League of Nations supervision.
Treaty of Versailles
The treaty imposed on Germany by the Allied powers after the end of World War I. It made Germany pay war reparations, stripped them of land and military, and blamed them for the war. The U.S never ratified the treaty.
reparations
payment for damages after a war
League of Nations
An organization formed after World War I to promote cooperation and peace among nations. The U.S. never joined it.
John Hay
Secretary of State under McKinley and Roosevelt who pioneered the Open-Door policy.
President Taft
27th President of the United States and later chief justice of the United States Supreme Court (1857-1930). He replaced Teddy Roosevelt as President and would later lose to Woodrow Wilson in the 1912 election.
Global Economey
Growth in international trade occurrred from the late 1800s to WWI which began the first era of . . .
Hawaii
America attained Hawaii by dethrowning Queen Liliuokalani. Hawaii became the 50th State.
Philippines
Spanish colony in the Pacific whom the US helped free from the Spanish, but soon after took as their own colony.
Central Powers
In World War I the alliance of Germany and Austria-Hungary and other nations allied with them in opposing the Allies
Allies
In World War I the alliance of Great Britain and France and Russia and all the other nations that became allied with them in opposing the Central Powers
submarine warfare
What brought US into war; Germany began to use subs to sink British merchant ships; sinks civilian passenger line; promises to stop using subs but eventually starts to use again
Freedom of the seas
The right of merchant ships to travel freely in international waters
United States failure to approve the Treaty of Versailles
The United States Senate would not apporve the treaty because they ojected to U. S. foregin policy decisions being made by an international organization like the League of Nations
Sandra Day O'Connor
First woman supreme court justice. Appointed by Reagan. She has retired.
Ruth Bader Ginsburg
Second female Supreme Court justice.
Clarence Thomas
Second African American nominated by George H. W. Bush to be on the Supreme Court in 1991, and shortly after was accused of sexual harassment by Anita Hill.
Individual Rights
basic liberties and rights of all citizens are guaranteed in the Bill of Rights.
Right to Privacy
The right to a private personal life free from the intrusion of government.
Immigration
Movement of individuals into an area occupied by an existing population.
Political Freedom
Many immigrants come to the United States to participate freely in the political process, choose and remove public officials to be governed under a rule of law.
Economic Opportunity
Many immigrants come to the United States for a chance to better oneself by getting a better job.
Bilingual Education
A strategy in which school subjects are taught in both the learner's original language and the second (majority) language.
Cultural Diversity
The state of having a variety of cultures in the same area.
American Space Program
This worked harder to put man on the moon in the 1960s.
John Glenn
First American to orbit the Earth
Neil Armstrong
First man on the moon. He proclaimed," That's one small step for a man, one giant leap for mankind".
Sally Ride
First American woman in space.
Space Exploration
This led to expansion of satellites and global communications.
Space Shuttle
A spacecraft that can carry a crew into space, return to Earth, and then be reused for the same purpose.
Mars Rover
Used to perform experiments on and test soil of Mars.
Voyager Missions
Journeys to study the region in space where the Sun's influence ends and the dark recesses of interstellar space begin.
Hubble Telescope
Large space telescope able to see farther than any other telescope at the end of the 20th century.
Satellite
Man-made equipment that orbits around the earth or the moon
Global Postitioning System
A method of finding latitude and longitude using network of sattelites
Robotics
Mechanical devices programmed to do routine tasks.
Telecommuting
Employment at home while communicating with the workplace by phone or fax or modem.
Outsourcing
Removes work from one company and sends it to another company that can complete it at a lower cost.
Off-shoring
Moving work to other countries.
Reagan Revolution
Pioneered by Ronald Reagan who cut spending food stamps and job programs, rose federal spending drastically, and gave tax cuts to the wealthy to stimulate the economy; a huge gap would form between rich and poor.
Federalism
A system in which power is divided between the national and state governments.
Judicial Restraint
Philosophy proposing that judges should interpret the Constitution to reflect what the framers intended and what its words literally say.
William Clinton
First baby boomer president and the second U.S. president to be impeached and acquitted.
Federal Reserve
The central bank of the U.S. Controls the the supply of money and attempts to control interest rates.
Fiscal Policy
A government policy for dealing with the budget (especially with taxation and borrowing).
Patriot Act
Passed after September 11th, 2001; this law broadens law enforcement's powers of arrest and investigation, especially for suspected terrorists; some claim this is a violation of civil liberties.
George W. Bush
President after Reagan, President when Cold War ended and when Sadam Hussein invaded Kuwait, sent troops to Iran which started the Persian Gulf War.
Brown v. Board of Education
court found that segregation was a violation of the Equal Protection clause; "separate but equal" has no place; reverse decision of Plessy v Feurgeson.
Thurgood Marshall
Leading attorney for NAACP in 1940s and 1950s, who headed the team in Brown vs. Board of Education case; later, the first black justice on the United States Supreme Court.
Oliver Hill
A lawyer from Virginia and civil rights leader, worked for equal rights of African Americans - played a key role in the Brown v. Board of Education decision
Massive Resistance
Southern movement resisting school integration after Brown v. Board of Education.
NAACP
The organization founded in 1909 to work for racial equality.
March on Washington 1963
This is where Martin Luther King gave his speech "I Have a Dream" given. March for Black rights.
Civil Rights Acts 1964
Outlawed racial discrimination in public facilities and unemployement.
Voting rights Act 1965
Prohibited use of any devices (e.g., literacy tests) to deny the right to vote and enforced black suffrage rights.
Dr. Martin Luther King
The main leader of the civil rights movement who gave the "I have a Dream Speech".
Lyndon B. Johnson
Signed the civil rights act of 1964 into law and the voting rights act of 1965. He had a war on poverty in his agenda.
Literacy test
A test given to persons to prove they can read and write before being allowed to register to vote.
John Locke
English philosopher who advocated the idea of a "social contract" in which government powers are derived from the consent of the governed and in which the government serves the people; also said people have natural rights to life, liberty and property.
Common Sense
a pamphlet written by Thomas Paine that claimed the colonies had a right to be an independent nation
Declaration of Independence
the document recording the proclamation of the second Continental Congress (4 July 1776) asserting the independence of the colonies from Great Britain. Thomas Jefferson was influenced by John Locke and Thomas Paine in writing the Declaration.
Proclamation of 1763
Act passed by England prohibiting colonists from settling west of the Appalachian Mountains following the French and Indian War.
Stamp Act
A tax that the British Pariliament placed on newspapers and official documents sold in the American Colonies.
Sugar Act
law passed by the British Parliament setting taxes on molasses and sugar imported by the colonies
Boston Tea Party
protest against increased tea prices in which colonists dumped british tea into boston harbor
Boston Massacre
a riot in Boston (March 5, 1770) arising from the resentment of Boston colonists toward British troops quartered in the city, in which the troops fired on the mob and killed several persons.
First Continental Congress
September 1774, delegates from twelve colonies sent representatives to Philadelphia to discuss a response to the Intolerable Acts
Minutemen
volunteer soldiers during the early days of the American Revolution who were ready to fight in a moments notice
Second Continental Congress
They organized the continental Army, called on the colonies to send troops, selected George Washington to lead the army, and appointed the comittee to draft the Declaration of Independence
Lexington and Concord
The first battles of the American Revolution. Colonial Minutemen fought agains British troops.
Patriots
Colonists who wanted independence from Britain
Loyalists "tories"
American colonists who remained loyal to Britain and opposed the war for independence. Also called Tories.
Neutrals
American Colonists who wanted to remain neutral throughout the American Revolution.
Treaty of Alliance
(1778) After the American victory at Saratoga, the France decides to recognize the US and an independent nation, and it laid groundwork for assistance to the American War effort. Alliance was negotiated by Benjamin Franklin.
George Washington
1st President of the United States. Commander of the Continental Army. Early on his leadership revolved around not going "toe to toe" with the British.
Trenton
On Christmas night, 1776, Washington led 2,400 men across the Delaware River to attack the drunken Hessians who were sleeping. The Americans killed 30 of the enemy and took 918 captives and 6 Hessian cannons.
Saratoga
A battle that took place in New York where the Continental Army defeated the British. It proved to be the turning point of the war. This battle ultimately had France to openly support the colonies with military forces in addition to the supplies and money already being sent.
Battle of Yorktown
In 1781 during the American Revolution, the British under Cornwallis surrendered after a siege of three weeks by American and French troops
Articles of Confederation
This document, the nation's first constitution, was adopted by the Second Continental Congress in 1781 during the Revolution. The document was limited because states held most of the power, and Congress lacked the power to tax, regulate trade, or control coinage.
Constitutional Convention
The meeting of state delegates in 1787 in Philadelphia called to revise the Articles of Confederation. It instead designed a new plan of government, the US Constitution.
James Madison
"The Father of the Constitution". Contributed the Virginia Plan. Also, wrote much of the Bill of Rights.
Virginia Plan
The proposal at the Constitutional Convention that called for representation of each state in Congress in proportion to that state's share of the U.S. population.
New Jersey Plan
The proposal at the Constitutional Convention that called for equal representation of each state in Congress regardless of the state's population
Great Compromise
Compromise made by Constitutional Convention in which states would have equal representation in one house of the legislature and representation based on population in the other house
Declaration of the Rights of Man
George Mason's contribution to the VA state constitution. Became the premise for the Bill of Rights.
3/5ths Compromise
agreement providing that enslaved persons would count as three-fifths of other persons in determining representation in Congress
VA Statute of Religious Freedom
Jefferson's idea that there should be separation between church and state. Basis of the 1st Amendment.
Bill of Rights
First 10 Amendments of the U.S. Constitution guaranteeing certain rights to all Americans. Anti-Federalists fought to get it included in the Constitution.
Federalists
supporters of the stronger central govt. who advocated the ratification of the new constitution. Group included Virginians George Washington and James Madison.
Anti-Federalists
opponents of a strong central government who campaigned against the ratification of the Constitution in favor of a confederation of independant states. Group included Virginians Patrick Henry and George Mason.
Marbury v. Madison
This case establishes the Supreme Court's power of Judicial Review
McCulloch v. Maryland
Maryland was trying to tax the national bank and Supreme Court ruled that federal law was stronger than the state law. The Power to Tax is the Power to Destroy.
John Marshall
Chief Justice of the Supreme Court appointed by John Adams. Ruled on several early court cases.
Gibbons v. Ogden
Regulating interstate commerce is a power reserved to the federal government
Federalist Party
a major political party in the United States in the early 19th century. Favored a strong federal government, Alexander Hamilton and John Adams were party leader.
Democratic-Republican Party
a political party founded in the 1790s by Thomas Jefferson, James Madison, and other leaders who wanted to preserve the power of the state governments and promote agriculture
Election of 1800
First peaceful transfer of power in U.S. history.
Louisana Purchase
1803 purchase by the United States of France's Louisiana territory for $15million (Mississippi River-Rocky mountains). Doubled the size of the U.S.
Lewis and Clark
Two explorers sent by the president to explore the Louisiana Purchase
Sacajawea
native American woman who served as a guide an interpreter for the Lewis and Clark expedition
Monroe Doctrine
President James Monroe's statement forbidding further colonization in the Americas and declaring that any attempt by a foreign country to colonize would be considered an act of hostility
Manifest Destiny
This expression was popular in the 1840s. Many people believed that the U.S. was destined to secure territory from "sea to sea," from the Atlantic to the Pacific Ocean. This rationale drove the acquisition of territory.
Cotton Kingdom
Areas in the south where cotton farming developed because of the high demand for cotton, Georgia, Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana and Texas (partly Florida)
Cotton Gin
Invented by Eli Whitney in 1793. It removed seeds from cotton fibers. Now cotton could be processed quickly and cheaply. Results: more cotton is grown and more slaves are needed for more acres of cotton fields
Alamo
the mission in San Antonio where in 1836 Mexican forces under Santa Anna besieged and massacred American rebels who were fighting to make Texas independent of Mexico. Became rallying cry for the Texans who ultimately won their independence.
Trail of Tears
The tragic journey of the cherokee people from their home land to indian territory between 1838 and 1839, thousands of cherokees died. Facilitated by the Indian Removal Act of 1830.
Age of the Common Man
Phrase for the elections of the 1820's when voter turnout increased due to the ending of property requirements for enfranchisement. Helped Andrew Jackson win the election of 1828.
Spoils System
The practice of rewarding supporters with government jobs. Jackson made this practice famous for the way he did it on a wide scale.
Protective Tariff
a tax on imported goods that raises the price of imports so people will buy domestic goods. In the 1820's-1830's caused distress between the North and South. North liked it (Industry) South disliked it (Agriculture).
Missouri Compromise/Compromise of 1820
an agreement in 1820 between pro-slavery and anti-slavery factions in the United States concerning the extension of slavery into new territories
Compromise of 1850
Includes California admitted as a free state, the Fugitive Slave Act, Made popular sovereignty in most other states from Mexican- American War
Kansas-Nebraska Act
States would decide (Popular Sovereignty) on the issue of slavery. Led to "Bleeding Kansas".
Nullification
the states'-rights doctrine that a state can refuse to recognize or to enforce a federal law passed by the United States Congress. First came about as a result of the Tariff of 1832.
Nat Turner and Gabriel Prosser
Slaves revolts in Virginia.
William Lloyd Garrison
Major leader of the growing abolitionist movement creator of the anti-slavery movement The Liberator.
Seneca Falls Convention
Kicked off the equal-rights-for-women campaign led by Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Susan B. Anthony (1848)
Panic of 1837
a series of financial failures that led to an economic depression. Caused by Andrew Jackson's policy to "kill" the national bank.
Abolitionist Movement
Movement to end slavery
Enlightenment
A movement in the 18th century that advocated the use of reason.
natural rights
the idea that all humans are born with rights, which include the right to life, liberty, and property
Social Contract
The notion that society is based on an agreement between government and the governed in which people agree to give up some rights in exchange for the protection of others.
Thomas Paine
Revolutionary leader who wrote the pamphlet Common Sense (1776) arguing for American independence from Britain.
franchise
right to vote
due process
The government must act fairly and in accord with established rules in all that it does
French and Indian War
A conflict between Britain and France for control of territory in North America, lasting from 1754 to 1763
Revolutionary War
A war between the British and the colonists. The colonists wanted to be free of British rule.
Patrick Henry
Outspoken member of House of Burgesses; inspired colonial patriotism with "Give me liberty or give me death" speech.
George Washington
Commander of the Continental Army during the American Revolutionary War, presided over the Constitutional Convention and 1st president.
three branches of the federal government
legislative, executive and judicial
Congress
The legislature of the United States government made up of two houses the Senate and House of Reprentatives
United States Constitution
The supreme law of the U. S. that limits the government.
George Mason
He wrote the Virginia Declarartion of Rights that reiterated the notion that basic human rights should not be violated by governments. Used by James Madison to write the Bill of Rights.
Ratification
Formal approval, final consent to the effectiveness of a constitution.
Jay's Treaty
1794 - It was signed in the hopes of settling the growing conflicts between the U.S. and Britain.
John Adams
America's first Vice-President and second President.
Alexander Hamilton
1789-1795; First Secretary of the Treasury. He advocated creation of a national bank, and a strong national government.
Thomas Jefferson
Frist Secretary of State and 3rd President of the United States.
Oregon Territory
Territory in the upper western corner of the US - claimed by both Britain and US.
Westard Expansion
Railroads and it destroyed the Native American's habitat because they lived by the nature and hunted buffalo.
Eli Whiteny
He invented the cotton gin and introduced the idea of interchangeable parts.
democratic spirit
The belief that all citizens have a voice in their government which grew under Andrew Jackson.
Whigs
the name taken by the political party that opposed President Jackson
Know-Nothings
The American Party; anti-immigrant and anti-Catholic.
fugitive slave laws
a law enacted as part of the compromise of 1850 designed to ensure that escaped slaves would be returned into bondage
The Liberator
Antislavery newspaper founded by William Lloyd Garrison
Elizabeth Cady Stanton
A member of the women's right's movement in 1840. She started the womens movements at Seneca Falls and helped write the "Declaration of Sentiments" which declared "all men and women are created equal."
Susan B. Anthony
Friend and partner of Elizabeth Cady Stanton in the struggle for women's rights; meeting in 1851, Anthony and Stanton founded the National Woman Suffrage Association after the Civil War. The Nineteenth Amendment, which extended the right to vote to women in 1920, is sometimes called the "Anthony" amendment.
abolitionist
a reformer who favors abolishing slavery
United Nations
International organization founded in 1945 to promote world peace and cooperation. It replaced the League of Nations.
Marshall Plan
A plan that the US came up with to revive war-torn economies of Europe. This plan offered $13 billion in aid to western and Southern Europe.
West Germany
British, American and French zone of Germany and was democratic.
East Germany
Soviet-controlled area of Germany. was communist.
Cold War
This period of time following World War II is where the United States and the Soviet Union emerged as superpowers and faced off in an arms race that lasted nearly 50 years.
Soviet Union
A Communist nation, consisting of Russia and 14 other states, that existed from 1922 to 1991.
Communism
A political and economic system where factors of production are collectively owned and directed by the state.
Totalitarianism
Government control over every aspect of public and private life.
Democracy
Government by the people.
Free Enterprise
Economic system in which individuals and businesses are allowed to compete for profit with a minimum government interference.
Truman Doctrine
President Truman's policy of providing economic and military aid to any country threatened by communism or totalitarian ideology.
North Atlantic Treaty Organization NATO
Created in 1949 under United States leadership to group most of the western European powers plus Canada in a defensive alliance against possible Soviet aggression.
Warsaw Pact
An alliance between the Soviet Union and other Eastern European nations. This was in response to the NATO.
Containment of communism
A guiding principle of American foreign policy throughout the Cold War
Richard Nixon
He was elected to be US President after Johnson decided to not to run for US president again. He promised peace with honor in Vietnam which means withdrawing American soliders from South Vietnam
Dewight Eisenhower
American General who began in WWll and became the commander and 34th president of U. S.
Massive Retaliation
The "new look" defense policy of the Eisenhower administration of the 1950's was to threaten "massive retaliation" with nuclear weapons in response to any act of aggression by a potential enemy.
Korean War
The conflict between Communist North Korea and Non-Communist South Korea. The United Nations (led by the United States) helped South Korea in the 1950s.
Vietnam War
A prolonged war (1954-1975) between the communist armies of North Vietnam who were supported by the Chinese and the non-communist armies of South Vietnam who were supported by the United States
John F. Kennedy
The President that began the military buildup in Vietnam.
Lyndon Johnson
36th President of the United States and intensified the buildup of the Vietnam War.
Vietnamization
President Richard Nixons strategy for ending U.S involvement in the vietnam war, involving a gradual withdrawl of American troops and replacement of them with South Vietnamese forces.
Watergate Scandal
A botched Republican engineered break-in of the Democratic National Committee headquarters in Washington D.C., that eventually forced Nixon to resign in 1974.
Fidel Castro
Cuban socialist leader who overthrew a dictator in 1959 and established a Marxist socialist state in Cuba.
Bay of Pigs
An unsuccessful invasion of Cuba in 1961, which was sponsored by the United States. Its purpose was to overthrow Cuban dictator Fidel Castro.
Cuban Missile Crisis
Brink-of-war confrontation between the United States and the Soviet Union over the latter's placement of nuclear-armed missiles in Cuba.
bomb shelters
After WWII and the atomic bombs, thousands of families built these in their yards to be safe from possible attacks.
Alger Hiss
A former State Department official who was accused of being a Communist spy and was convicted of perjury.
Julius and Ethel Rosenberg
two American citizens convicted of espionage and executed in 1951
Senator Joseph McCarthy
1950s; Wisconsin senator claimed to have list of communists in American gov't, but no credible evidence; took advantage of fears of communism post WWII to become incredibly influential; "McCarthyism" was the fearful accusation of any dissenters of being communists.
Vietnam Veterans
These war veterans were treated with indiffference and hostility after the war.
glasnost
A Soviet policy of openness to the free flow of ideas and information, introduced in 1985 by Mikhail Gorbachev.
Mikhail Gorbachev
Soviet statesman whose foreign policy brought an end to the Cold War and whose domestic policy introduced major reforms.
Perestrokia
Used by Gorbachev, restructured the economy of the USSR.
Ronald Reagan
40th president from 1981-1989. Tearing down of the Berlin Wall and Ending the Cold War after spending millions of dollars on arms. Iran-Contra Affair. He said, "Mr. Gobachev, tear down this wall."
Yugoslavia
This country existed from 1918 until 1991 when civil war broke out and the former communist regime here fell. After that, this country was divided up into into Serbia, Bosnia-Hergezovenia, Macedonia, Croatia and Slovenia.
George H. W. Bush
President after Reagan, President when Cold War ended and when Sadam Hussein invaded Kuwait, sent troops to Iran which started the Persian Gulf war.
Persian Gulf War 1990-1991
A war in which the United States and the United Nations drove Iraq out of Kuwait. Known as Operation Desert Storm.
Operation Desert Storm
1991 american-led attack on iraqi forces after iraq refused to withdraw its troops from kuwait. Also known as Persain Gulf War.
William J. Clinton
42nd President of the U.S., 1993-2001; Democrat President form Arkansas who defeated George Bush after overcoming numerous political obstacles; advocated economic & health care reform. He was impeached.
NAFTA "North Atlantic Free Trade Agreement"
-Trade agreement between Canada, Mexico, USA
- Eliminated trade barriers, increased economic activities between countries, and strengthened each country's global economic and political position.
Apartheid
A system of legal racial segregation enforced by the National Party government in South Africa between 1948 and 1994, under which the rights of the majority black inhabitants of South Africa were curtailed and minority rule by whites was maintained.
George W. Bush
43rd president of the US who began a campaign toward energy self-sufficiency and against terrorism in 2001.
9/11
On this day, planes flew into many places, such as the pentagon and the World trade Center.
Afghanistan
America continues to fight a war there. Their government is officially a republic. Its geography makes it difficult for the government to organize and rule the people.
Abolitionist
A reformer who favors abolishing slavery
Secessionist
Someone who wanted the South to leave the Union
Abraham Lincoln
16th President of the United States
Fort Sumter
Opening confortation of the Civil War
Emancipation Proclamation
Issued by Abraham Lincoln on september 22, 1862 it declared that all slaves in the confederate states would be free
Gettysburg
The most violent battle of the American Civil War and is frequently cited as the war's turning point, fought from July 1 - July 3, 1863.
Appomattox Court House
The Virginia town where Robert E. Lee surrendered to Ulysses S. Grant in 1865, ending the Civil War
Battle of Antietam
The single, bloodiest day of the entire Civil War and the Emacnipation Proclamation was passed after it.
Jefferson Davis
President of the Confederacy during the Civil War.
Ulysses S. Grant
An American general and the eighteenth President of the United States (1869-1877). He achieved international fame as the leading Union general in the American Civil War who won victories in the South.
Frederick Douglass
Runaway slave, well-known speaker on the condition of slavery, and an abolitionist who urged Lincoln to recruit former enslaved African Americans to fight in the Union Army.
Battle of Bull Run
July 21, 1861. Va. (outside of D.C.) People watched battle. Thomas "Stonewall" Jackson: Confederate general, held his ground and stood in battle like a "stone wall." Union retreated. Confederate victory. Showed that both sides needed training and war would be long and bloody
Gettysburg Address
A famous speech delivered by Abraham Lincoln in Nov. 1863 at the dedication of a national cemetary on the site of the Battle of Gettysburg
Of the people, by the people, and for the people
Part of the Gettysburg Address which reminds us that our government is ruled by the people.
13th Amendment
This amendment freed all slaves without compensation to the slaveowners.
14th Amendment
This amendment declared that all persons born or naturalized in the United States were entitled equal rights regardless of their race, and that their rights were protected at both the state and national levels.
15th Amendment
Citizens cannot be denied the right to vote because of race, color , or precious condition of servitude (not given to women)
Compromise of 1877
Unwritten deal that settled the 1876 presidential election contest between Rutherford Hayes (Rep) and Samuel Tilden (Dem.) Hayes was awarded the presidency in exchange for the permanent removal of federal troops from the South, ending Reconstruction.
"Jim Crow Era"
Era in south when African Americans were denied the full rights of American citizenship
Transcontinental Railroad
Completed in 1869 at Promontory, Utah, it linked the eastern railroad system with California's railroad system, revolutionizing transportation in the west
Robert E. Lee
Confederate general who had opposed secession but did not believe the Union should be held together by force.
Era of the Cowboy
Post Civil War era marked by long cattle drives over unfenced land.
Homestead Act 1862
This allowed a settler to acquire 160 acres by living on it for five years, improving it and paying about $30
Ellis Island
an island in New York Bay that was formerly the principal immigration station on the EAst Coast for immigrants coming to the United States from Europe.
Angel Island
Inspection station for immigrants arriving on the West Coast from Asia.
Melting Pot
The mixing of cultures, ideas, and peoples that has changed the American nation. The United States, with its history of immigration.
Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882
Passed in 1882; banned Chinese immigration in US for a total of 40 years because the United States thought of them as a threat. Caused chinese population in America to decrease.
Corporation
Business owned by stockholders but share a limited liability for businesses actions
Bessmer process
Created by Henry Bessmer and first used in Andrew Carnige's steel production, this allowed the mass-production of steel from molten pig iron
Light bulb
Invented by Thomas Edison
Telephone
Eectronic equipment that converts sound into electrical signals that can be transmitted over distances and then converts received signals back into sounds. Developed by Alexander G. Bell.
Airplane inventors
Wright Brothers
Assembly-line manufacturing
A manufacturing tool, first made popular by Henry Ford in his manufacturing of automobiles. It is a way to mass produce goods quickly and efficiently.
Andrew Carnegie
A Scottish-born American industrialist and philanthropist who's company dominated the American steel industry.
J. P. Morgan
Banker/ financer who buys out Carnegie Steel and renames it to U.S. Steel. Was a philanthropist in a way; he gave all the money needed for WWI and was payed back. Was one of the "Robber barons"
John D. Rockfeller
President of Standard Oil Monopoly. Used horizontal integration to become America's first billionaire. he was an oil tycoon who made deals with railroads to increase his profit. born July 8, 1839.
Cornelius Vanderbilt
A railroad owner who built a railway connecting Chicago and New York. .
Laissez-faire capitalism
Minimal governmental interference in the economic affairs.
Jim Crow Laws
laws that enforced segregation in the south
Lynchings
when small vigilante mobs or elaborately organized community events where an individual (typically black) was publicly hung due to a crime (true or perceived). Resulted from white supremacy or fear of black sexuality.
Plessey vs. Ferguson
Supreme Court case in which "separate but equal" was upheld.
Great Migration
movement of over 300,000 African American from the rural south into Northern cities between 1914 and 1920
Ida B. Wells
african-american journalist who led the fight against lynching
Booker T. Washington
African American progressive who supported segregation and demanded that African American better themselves individually to achieve equality through vocatioanl education. He accepted social separation.
W.E.B. DuBois
Black intellectual who challenged Booker T. Washington's ideas on combating Jim Crow; he called for the black community to demand immediate equality and was a founding member of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP).
Square Deal
President Theodore Roosevelt's plan for reform; all Americans are entitled to an equal opportinity to succeed
New Freedom
Woodrow Wilson's program in his campaign for the presidency in 1912, the New Freedom emphasized business competition and small government. It sought to reign in federal authority, release individual energy, and restore competition.
Gilded Age
A name for the late 1800s, coined by Mark Twain to describe the tremendous increase in wealth caused by the industrial age and the ostentatious lifestyles it allowed the very rich. .
Robber Barons
Refers to the industrialists or big business owners who gained huge profits by paying their employees extremely low wages.
Referendum
The name given to the political process in which the general public votes on an issue of public concern.
Initiative
allowed all citizens to introduce a bill into the legislative and required members to take a vote on it
Recall
the act of removing an official by petition
17th Amendment
Passed in 1913, this amendment to the Constitution calls for the direct election of senators by the voters instead of their election by state legislatures.
Muckraking
The practice of journalists to expose the inappropriate actions of public officials, government organizations, or corporations.
Knights of Labor
labor union that sought to organize all workers and focused on broad social reforms
Samuel Gompers
United States labor leader (born in England) who was president of the American Federation of Labor from 1886 to 1924 (1850-1924)
Eugene V. Debs
led the Pullman strike and founded the American Railway Union
Haymarket Square Riot
A demonstration of striking laborers in Chicago in 1886 that turned violent, killing a dozen people and injuring over a hundred.
Homestead Strike
1892 steelworker strike near Pittsburgh against the Carnegie Steel Company. Ten workers were killed in a riot when "scab" labor was brought in to force an end to the strike.
Pullman Strike
This was a nonviolent strike which brought about a shut down of western railroads, which took place against the Pullman Palace Car Company in Chicago in 1894, because of the poor wages of the Pullman workers.
Sherman Anti-Trust Act
First federal action against monopolies.
Clayton Anti-Trust Act
Expands the Sherman Anti-Trust Acct and outlawed price fixing (unions were not monopolies)
Women's Sufferage
the right for women to vote
Susan B. Anthony
social reformer who campaigned for womens rights, the temperance, and was an abolitionist, helped form the National Woman Suffrage Assosiation
Elizabeth Stanton
A member of the women's right's movement in 1840. She was a mother of seven, and she shocked other feminists by advocating suffrage for women at the first Women's Right's Convention in Seneca, New York 1848. Stanton read a "Declaration of Sentiments" which declared "all men and women are created equal."
19th Amendment
Amendment to the U.S. Constitution (1920) extended the right to vote to women in federal or state elections.
Seneca Falls Convention
Took place in upperstate New York in 1848. Women of all ages and even some men went to discuss the rights and conditions of women. There, they wrote the Declaration of Sentiments, which among other things, tried to get women the right to vote.
state's rights
the right of states to limit the power of the federal government
territories
land that belongs to a nation but is not a state and is not represented in the national government
Dred Scott case
Supreme Court case which ruled that slaves are not citizens but are property, affirmed that property cannot be interfered with by Congress, slaves do not become free if they travel to free territories or states.
Uncle Tom's Cabin
A novel published by Harriet Beecher Stowe in 1852 which portrayed slavery as brutal and immoral
Harriet Beecher Stowe
Wrote Uncle Tom's Cabin.
Reconstruction
The period after the Civil War in the United States when the southern states were reorganized and reintegrated into the Union.
secession
The withdrawal of eleven Southern states from the Union in 1860 which precipitated the American Civil War
Radical Republicans
Political party that favored harsh punishment of Southern states after civil war. Helped AFrican Americans after the war.
Assasination Lincoln
John Wilkes Booth assasinated him in Washington. .
Union
The United States (especially the northern states during the American Civil War)
Confederacy
The southern states that seceded from the United States in 1861
Andrew Johnson
A Southerner form Tennessee, as V.P. when Lincoln was killed, he became president. He opposed radical Republicans who passed Reconstruction Acts over his veto. The first U.S. president to be impeached but was not removal by only one vote.
Electoral College
The body of electors who formally elect the United States president and vice-president.
Robert E. Lee
Served as president of Washington College and empahisized the importance of education.
Transcontinental Railroad
Railroad connecting the west and east coasts of the continental US
Fredrick Douglass
Encouraged federal governemnt actions to protect the rights of freedman in the South and served as ambassador to Haiti and in the civil service.
Industrialization
The development of industries for the machine production of goods.
Westward Expansion
A movement westward for jobs, land, hope, the gold rush, adventure, a new beginning and the transcontinental railroad. It lasted from 1850 - 1890.
Mechanical reaper
Machine invented by Cyrus McCormick that could harvest wheat quickly.
Removal Policy
Although it started with Jackson, it continued after the Civil War and forced Native Americans to move further west.
Prior ro 1871 most immigrants came to the U. S. from where?
Germany, Great Britian, Ireland, Norway and Sweden
From 1871 until 1921, most immmigrants came from where?
Southern and Eastern Europe: Italy, Greece, Poland, Russia and present day Hungary and Yugoslavia as well as Asia (China and Japan).
What immigrant group helped build the Trancontinental Railroad?
Chinese
assimilation
the social process of absorbing one cultural group into harmony with another
What cities grew after the Civil War?
Chicago, Detriot, Cleveland, Pittsburg and New York
land grants
land subsidies granted to railroad companies to encourage construction of rail lines to the West
Progressive Movement
Reform effort, generally centered in urban areas and begun in the early 1900s, whose aims included returning control of the government to the people, restoring economic opportunities, and correcting injustices from the Gilded Age.
separate but equal
Principle upheld in Plessy v. Ferguson (1896) in which the Supreme Court ruled that segregation of public facilities was legal.
Primary elections
A preliminary election in which voters nominate party candidates for office.
secret ballot
Anonymous voting method that helps to make elections fair and honest. Came about in the Progressive Era
Child Labor Laws
Most states passed minimum working age laws and prohibited children from working more than 10 hours per day, but enforcement was difficult to achieve.
American Federation of Labor
Federation of craft labor unions lead by Samuel Gompers that arose out of dissatisfaction with the Knights of Labor
American Railway Union
Led by Eugene Debs, they started the Pullman strike, composed mostly of railroad workers.
International Ladies Garment Workers Union
An organization of people that make ladies garments. Their workers went on strike in the years just before the triangle fire.
Rationing
Restricting the amount of food and other goods people may buy during wartime to assure adequate supplies for the military
War Bonds
Certificates bought by the public and sold by the United States government to pay for the war.
Draft/Selective Service
A system for calling up people for compulsory military service.
Rosie the Riveter
The symbol of American women who went to work in factories during the war
Internment
The imprisonment or confinement of people, commonly in large groups, without trial. We did it to Japanese-Americans in WWII because we thought they might be spies or something.
Korematsu v. United States
The Supreme court upheld the internment of Japanese Americans.
Propaganda
Ideas spread to influence public opinion for or against a cause
Puritans
Protestants who wanted to reform the Church of England
Covenant Community
Puritans based communities on Mayflower Compact and religious beliefs
Mayflower Compact
first document in the America for self-government
Cavaliers
Supporters of the King who recieved large land grants in Virignia.
Indentured Servants
Colonists who received free passage to North America in exchange for working without pay for a certain number of years.
Jamestown
First permanent English settlement in North America in 1607.
Virginia Company of London
Joint Stock Company who founded Jamestown.
Joint Stock Company
A group of people/ business venture in which investors pool their wealth for purpose of founding a colony.
House of Burgessess
First elected assembly in the New World founded in Virginia 1640. Today known as the General Assembly.

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