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when the heart contracts, the pressure increases


when the heart relaxes, the pressure decreases

coronary circulation

the circulation of blood to the heart

pulmonary circulation

the circulation of blood to the lungs

systemic circulation

the circulation of blood throughout the body

white blood cells

less abundant, involved in host immune defense


pieces of cells important in blood clotting

lymph nodes

special pockets in lymphatic system where lymph is filtered


transport blood away from the heart


transport blood to the heart

lactic acid

produced during anaerobic respiration, is a cause of sore muscles after strenuous exercise

sensory neurons

transmit impulses from sense organs and receptors


make up brain and spinal cord


carry impulses from interneurons to skeletal and visceral muscles

somatic branch

concerned with external environment

autonomic branch

concerned with internal environment

reflex arc

carries out quick, simple, and automatic responses to certain stimuli


complex and high level thinking


muscular coordination and balance


body temperature, blood pressure, breathing


chemicsl that act as messengers and that help control the important processes of growth, metabolism, reproduction, osmotic balance, and development


a degenerative bone and joint disease

rheumatoid arthritis

a degenerative joint disease caused by autoimmune response


a disease caused by calcium loss


connect bones to bones


connect bones to ligaments

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