Chapter 13: Cognitive Development in Middle Childhood
Terms in this set (76)
the third stage of Piagetian cognitive development approximately from ages 7 to 12 during which children develop logical but not abstract thinking strategy the child uses to negotiate with the world
ability to order items along a dimension
understanding the relationship between two objects by knowing the relationship of each to a third object
understanding the relationship between and whole and its parts
type of logical reasoning that moves from particular observations about members of a class to a general conclusion about that class
type of logical reasoning that moves from a general premise about a class to a conclusion about a particular member of members of a class
Piaget's term for an inability to transfer learning about one type of conservation to other types which causes a child to master different types of conservation tasks at different ages
conscious control of thoughts emotions and actions to accomplish goals or solve problems
understanding of processes of memory
strategy to aid memory
external memory aids
mnemonic strategies using something outside the person
mnemonic strategy to keep an item in working memory through conscious repetition
mnemonic strategy of categorizing material to be remembered
mnemonic strategy of making mental associations involving items to be remembered
Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children
individual intelligence test for school children that yields vernal and performance scores as well as a combined score
Otis Lennon School Ability Test
group intelligence test for kindergarten through 12th grade
culture free test
an intelligence test that if it were possible to design would have no culturally linked content
culture fair test
an intelligence test that deals with experiences common to various cultures in an attempt to avoid cultural bias
theory of multiple intelligences
Gardner's theory that there are eight distinct forms of intelligence
triarchic theory of intelligence
Sternberg's theory describing three types of intelligence componential (analytical ability) experiential (insight and originality) and contextual (practical thinking)
Sternberg's term for the analytic aspect of intelligence
Sternberg's term for the insightful aspect of intelligence
Sternberg's term for the practical aspect of intelligence
Sternberg's term for information that is not formally taught or openly expressed but is necessary to get ahead
Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children
nontraditional individual intelligence test designed to provide fair assessments of minority children and children with disabilities
tests based on Vygotsky's theory that emphasize potential rather than past learning
the social context of language
English immersion approach
approach to teaching English as a second language in which instruction is presented only in English
system of teaching non English speaking children in their native language while they learn English and later switching to all English instruction
fluent in two languages
process of phonetic analysis by which a printed word is converted to spoken form before retrieval from long term memory
phonetic code emphasis approach
approach to teaching reading that emphasizes decoding unfamiliar words
whole language approach
approach to teaching reading that emphasizes visual retrieval and use of contextual clues
visually based retrieval
process of retrieving the sound of a printed word on seeing the word as a whole
family and community resources on which a person or family can draw
policy of automatically promoting children even if they do not meet academic standards
significantly subnormal cognitive functioning also referred to as cognitive disability or mental retardation
developmental disorder in which reading achievement is substantially lower than predicted by IQ or age
disorders that interfere with specific aspects of learning and school achievement
attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)
syndrome characterized by persistent inattention and distractibility impulsivity low tolerance for frustration and inappropriate overactivity
thinking aimed at finding the one right answer to a problem
thinking that produces a variety of fresh diverse possibilities
approach to educating the gifted that broadens and deepens knowledge and skills through extra activities projects field trips and mentoring
approach to educating the gifted that moves them through the curriculum at an unusually rapid pace
principles we use when solving problems
concrete or actual problems cause and effect is mastered but limited to the here and now
the concrete operation child solves?
possible or abstract problems
the concrete operation child doesn't solve?
space and causality categorization inductive vs deductive reasoning conservation numbers and math morale reasoning
what are the advances of the concrete operational child?
space and causality
better understanding of spatial relationships they can give you clear directions to get somewhere
how long does it take to get to a place longer short vs. time and landmarks along the way
what are examples of space and causality?
includes seriation transitive inference and class inclusion
the understanding of the relationship between two objects by knowing the relationship of each to a third object
smaller to bigger darkest to lightest
what are examples of seriation?
bobby is shorter than Tom Tom is short than Phil is Bobby shorter than Phil
what is an example of transitive inference?
the preoperational child would answer crayon because they are comparing crayons with pencil
what would the preoperational child answer to the crayons experiment for class inclusion?
pencil and crayon experiment with 5 pencils and 10 crayons are there more things to write with or more crayons?
what is an example of class inclusion?
things to write with comparing subclasses with the major subordinate class
what would a concrete operational child answer to the crayon experiment for class inclusion?
assimilation this dress has no legs neither does this one so looks like dresses have no legs
what is an example of inductive reasoning?
accommodation all dresses lack legs this dress has no legs but what about this poncho?
what is an example of deductive reasoning?
identity reversibility decenter inconsistent horizontal decalage
mastering conservation of volume but not physical conservation OJ task vs. Pizza Task
what is an example of conservation?
numbers and math
by age 6-7 most can count in their heads or able to count on more adept at solving simple story problems
if the operation has subtraction
what is the easier math problem for middle childhood?
if the operation has addition but is not obvious
what is the harder math problem for middle childhood?
multiplication and division
what is the hardest math operation for middle childhood?
Jenny because they are egocentric and degree of offense because cookie jar cannot be repaired
why did children younger than 7 believe that Jenny was the one that should be punished in the cookie jar story?
Sarah because moving towards allocentrism equity because Sarah was told not to and Jenny was trying to help
why did children older than 7 believe that Sarah should be punished in the cookie jar story?
1st stage (morale and reasoning)
happens 2-7 years proportional stage rigid obedience to authority rule cannot be changed or ben
2nd stage (morale and reasoning)
7-11 years concrete operational stage increasing flexibility considered intent and beginning of equity intention and circumstances should be considered for punishment uses a wider range of viewpoints allocentric
3rd stage (morale and reasoning)
11-12 years old using formal operations equity takes specific circumstances into account
Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children this is the most widely used intelligence test for kids
mental age/chronological age x 100 learning more when you are younger accounting for the amount that you're learning
what is an IQ score?
what is the average IQ score?
contains 15 subtests and 4 indices verbal comprehension perceptual reasoning processing speech working memory
what does the WISC-V contain?
remove bias of literacy make more money the old pictures were ugly online improve psychometric properties
why is there another revision of WISC?
greater emphasis on multiple factors and types of intelligence greater emphasis of fluid reasoning importance of working memory in learning important of processing speed as a mediator of intelligence process approach to evaluating performance how they did it is as important as whether answer is correct
what are the revisions for today?