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Combo with Linguistics Folder: Linguistic Terms (49) [Terms-Defintions)
Terms in this set (49)
Speech is equal to?
-Articulation, Motor control, Physical movements
- ex.) ideas expressed through pictures; sign language
what are the six systems of language?
The bottom line on speech.....
-A pattern of movements
-A pattern of acoustic vibrations
-The conversion of language to sound (speech is the motor production of the language system)
-Studied by observing the movements and by recording the acoustic signal.
We use graphemes to create?
-orthography (orthography is writing using the alphabet letters!)
what is a grapheme?
-Different letter sequences or patterns that represent the same sound.
ex.) the sound "ooo" or /u/ can be spelled orthographically as: loop, through, threw, fruit, canoe
-written letters that represent no sound
ex.) sound: know, bite, khaki, plumb
-pairs of letters representing one sound
ex.) "SHoe", "stEAk", "tiSSue", "hEEd"
Tell me about the phonetic alphabet?
One symbol= one perceived sound
-"the systematic organization of speech sounds in the production of language; the study of the linguistic rules that specify the manner in which phonemes are organized and combined into syllables, words, and sentences."
-we defined the study of "phonetics" as....
The study of the production of speech sounds: their form (articulation), substance (acoustic properties) and perception.
-word structure/meaningful sequences of sounds
-meanings of both words and sentences
-This is related to grammar
1.) order/sentence structure
2.) rules of sentences/phrase formation
ex. "The blue car." vs "The car blue."
-The functional use of language between speaker(s) and listener(s) for effective communication
ex.) eye contact, proximity, presupposition, greeting/closure, conversational skills (turn taking, topic maintenance, initiation, etc.)
-rate, stress patterns, pauses
Some Disorder Areas related to systems of language
-Language Learning Disabilities: (usually all aspects of language are affected-spoken and written. Difficulty with academics.) Many of the systems of language may be affected.
-Specific Language Impairment: (does not exhibit the academic difficulties of LLD). Perhaps only one of the systems of language is affected.
-Dyslexia: or specific reading disability. Phonology may be affected.
-Social Pragmatics Disorder
Name some other speech/language disorders?
-Aphasia (problems with word retrieval; happens usually after a stroke)
-Apraxia (can't find the motor movements to say something)
-smallest unit of language which carries meaning
ex.) book, chair
Bound vs. Free morphemes
-Free morpheme: can stand alone and carry meaning)
-Bound morpheme: carry no meaning when standing alone
ex.) plural suffix "s"
another ex.) -ing, -ed
-A family of sounds that signals a change in meaning; it differentiates morphemes (/l/ vs. /b/ -- "look" vs. "book"
Minimal Contrasts/minimal pairs?
-words that vary by only one phoneme
"book" vs "look"
"boy" vs "toy"
-A change in a phoneme that changes a morpheme
-A sound change that does not signal a change in meaning
-members of the phoneme family!
-say "pop." say it again with unaspirated "p". These are two allophones of /p/ phoneme.
-Allophones that must be produced in a certain way due to other sounds in the word. Not interchangeable.
ex.) "key" vs. "coo" (compare k's)(vowel context)
"get" vs. "got" (compare /g/'s)(vowel context)
"ball" vs. "lip" (compare /l/'s) (vowel context)
-Allophones that are not linked to phonetic context and are interchangeable.
-the "pop" example above or /t/ in "hit" can be aspirated or unaspirated. You can do what you want.
Levels of Linguistic Analysis:
-Graphemes: k, e, y, s
-Syllables: keys=1 syllable
-Phonemes: /k i z/
what is phonetics?
the study of speech sounds
-range of sounds used across the world's languages
-sounds within a language and sounds used by speakers
types of phonetics
articulatory - how produced
acoustic - sounds
respiration, phonation, and articulation
air flowing out of body with oral and nasal cavities
oral and nasal cavities, pharynx, larynx, trachea, epiglottis, lungs, diaphragm
cartilages and muscles in the neck
thyroid, cricoid, epiglottis
larynx, pharynx, nasal cavity, oral cavity
bilabial, dental, velum, tongue, etc.
consonants - airflow obstruction
vowels - no airflow obstruction
every word in every language contains at least one vowel
vary along 3 dimensions
place of articulation
where the constriction is in the vocal tract
manner of articulation
how the air flows
voicing of articulation
whether the VFs vibrate or not
vary along 3 dimensions
1. tongue height
2. tongue advancement
transition from 1 vowel to another
tense v. lax
tense: longer and greater constriction, can occur in open syllables
symbols in 
pitch, length, and stress
musical characteristics of a spoken language
pitch, duration, and stress
often described in relative terms: high, middle, or low or transcribed with diacritics
non-phonemic in english
used to signal differenced in word meaning in many languages
pitch change is unrelated to differences in word meaning in english
non-phonemic in AE
can signal a change in meaning
[i] v. [i:]
lexical in english
present (n) v. present (v)
democrat v. democracy v. democratic
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