Chem. Chapters 1&2

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Terms in this set (...)

What is matter?
Anything that takes up space and has mass
What is mass?
Measure of the amount of matter in an object
What is weight?
Measure of the gravitational pull on an object
What does the Law of Conservation of Mass and Energy state?
Matter is not created or destroyed in ordinary physical/chemical changes
What is inertia?
The resistance to change in motion
What are reactants?
Substances that react with one another
What are products?
Substances that are the result of a chemical reaction
What is energy?
The ability to cause change and do work
What is heat?
The sum of the total kinetic energy of particles in a substance
What is a mixture?
A combination of 2 or more kinds of matter. each retains its own composition and properties
What is a precipitate?
A solid that forms from a mixture, separated from the solution, and sinks to the bottom.
What is an element?
Substance made of only one type of atom
What is a compound?
Atoms of 2 or more elements, which are chemically bonded to each other
What is an atom?
The smallest unit of an element that maintains the properties of it.
What is a molecule?
The smallest unit of a compound
What is volume?
The amount of space occupied by an object
What is density?
How tightly packed particles are in a substance. D = m/v
What are significant figures?
All of the digits known with certainty plus one final digit which is uncertain
What are the four states of matter?
Solid
Liquid
Gas
Plasma
What are the characteristics of a solid?
Definite volume
Definite shape
What are the characteristics of a liquid?
Definite volume
Ø definite shape (based on the container)
What are the characteristics of a gas?
Ø definite volume
Ø definite shape
What is plasma?
It is a state of matter at such a high temperature that it moves so fast to the point of losing electrons
• 1x10^7 °C
What is a physical property?
Any characteristic that can be observed without changing the identity of a substance. (Can be extensive or intensive)
What are extensive physical properties?
Physical properties that depend on amount. (Volume, mass, length, etc.)
What are intensive physical properties?
Ø depend on present amounts. (Color, smell, melting point, density)
What are chemical properties?
Any characteristic that causes the identity of a substance to be changed in order to be observed. (Flammability)
What is a physical change?
A change that doesn't cause the identity of a substance to be altered.
What are examples of a physical change?
•Breaking glass
•Ripping paper
•Bending metal
melting, boiling, and freezing are ALWAYS physical changes
What is a chemical change?
A change that converts substances into other substances with different properties.
What are examples of a chemical change?
•Lighting a match
•Rusting
•Cooking
•Milk souring
What are some indications that a chemical change has occurred?
•gas production/bubbles
•color change
•formation of a precipitate
•energy change/temperature change
What is an endothermic reaction?
A reaction that absorbs heat and feels cold
(Melting ice, cold pack)
What is an exothermic reaction?
A reaction that releases heat and feels hot
(Burning match, hand warmer)
What is a heterogeneous mixture?
Mixture that is not the same throughout.
(chunky, lumpy, øuniform)
What is a homogeneous mixture?
Mixture that is evenly mixed throughout. (smooth, uniform, SOLUTIONS)
What are properties of a metal?
Malleable
Ductile
Shiny/Reflect light
Conduct heat & electricity
Strong
What are properties of nonmetals?
Ø malleable, ductile, shiny, reflective, conductors, or strong
Usually gasses
Very brittle(breakable)
What are metalloids?
Elements with combinations of the properties from metals and nonmetals.
Where do you find metals, nonmetals, metalloids,and noble gasses on the periodic table?
Metals- left side
Nonmetals- right side
Metalloids- stairstep elements
Noble gasses- far right column
What is the SI base unit of length?
Meters
What is the SI base unit of time?
Seconds
What is the SI base unit of mass?
Kilograms
What is the SI base unit of temperature?
Kelvin (from which we get Celsius)
What is the formula for density?
Density = mass/volume
What are the SI Prefixes?
Giga (G)
Mega (M)
Kilo (K)
Hecto (h)
Deka (da)
Origin (base unit)
Deci (d)
Centi (c)
Milli (m)
Micro (M)
Nano (n)
What is the acronym to help with the prefixes order?
(A) Great Many Kids Have Dropped Over Dead Converting Many Metric Numbers
What are the significant figures rules?
1. All non-zero #s are sig. (ex. 498 cm)

2. All zeroes between 2 sig. figs are sig. (ex. 2009 km)

3. Zeroes @ the start of a # are never sig. (ex. 0.00005 g)

4. Zeroes after a # are only sig. if they are after a decimal/are marked (ex. 480.0 mL; 48020. mL)
What is scientific notation?
The form of how to deal with super long #s
Such as: 322 000 = 3.22x10^5