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Hematology Ch. 41 and 42 (Exam 1)
Terms in this set (59)
are conditions directly int he blood itself that first activate platelets and then trigger the blood clotting cascade. These conditions include circulating debris and prolonged venous stasis
are outside of the blood that can also activate platelets. the most common extrinsic even is trauma that damages blood vessels and exposes the platelets to form a platelet plug within seconds of the trauma
Normal changes in older adult in nail beds for capillary refill
thickened or discolored nails make viewing skin color beneath the nails impossible
when cyanosis or pallor is present in the nail beds what alternative can be used to assess capillary refill
use another body area, such as the lip, to assess central capillary refill
hair distribution indicative of poor circulation to a particular area
thin or absent hair on the trunk or extremities
Normal hair distribution changes in the older adult
progressive loss of body hair is a normal facet of aging
significance and alterations of hairloss
a relatively even pattern of hair loss that has occurred over an extended period is not significant
skin problem indicative of a number of hematologic disorders
skin dryness which is not usually a reliable indicator of an underlying pathologic condition in the older adult
skin color changes associated with some hematologic disorders
pallor and jaundice. Laboratory testing is required in older adult because these skin changed may be normal part of aging
what are common skin changes associated with aging
pigment loss and skin yellowing
Table 41-3 Lab profile
an excess in RBC's
a reduction in either the number of RBC's, the amount of hemoglobin, or the hematocrit
percentage of packed RBC's per deciliter of blood
hemoglobin A (HbA)
normal adult hemoglobin. Normal adult red blood cells usually contain 98% to 99% HbA, with small percentage of a fetal form of hemoglobin.
common causes of iron deficiency anemia
Inadequate iron intake cause by:
-iron deficient diet
Rapid metabolic (anabolic) activity caused by:
common causes of vitamin B12 deficiency anemia
failure to absorb vitamin B12 from intestinal tract as a result of:
common causes of folic acid deficiency anemia
common causes of aplastic anemia
exposure to myelotoxic agents:
viral infection (unproven):
RBC's contain none. they are sites of production of ATP
small RBC's which is the result of iron deficiency
also called megaloblastic. Large RBC's found in vitamin B12 anemia
anemia resulting from failure to absorb vitamin B12
vitamin B12 deficiency symptoms
may be mild or severe, usually develops slowly and produces few symptoms. Patients usually have pallor and jaundice, as well as glossitis (a smooth beefy red tongue) fatigue and weight loss.
abnormal sensations in the feet and hangs and poor balance happening during pernicious anemia because vitamin B12 is needed for normal nerve function.
a deficiency of circulating red blood cells because of failure of the bone marrow to produce these cells. It is caused by an injury to the immature precursor cell for RBC's known as the PLURIPOTENT STEM CELL.
although aplastic anemia sometimes occurs alone, it usually occurs with what?
leukopenia and thrombocytopenia. these three problems occur together because the damaged bone marrow loses the ability to produce any of these cells .
a deficiency of all three cell types is common in aplastic anemia. Disease onset may be slow or rapid.
cause of aplastic anemia
in about 50% of cases the cause is unknown.
thicker then normal blood. Happens in polycythemia, the number of RBC's in the blood is greater than normal. Problem may be temporary or chronic. One type is polycythemia vera and it can be fatal if untreated.
polycythemia vera (PV)
is a disease with a sustained increase in blood hemoglobin levels, RBC, or hematocrit levels. PV is a cancer of the RBC's with three major hallmarks.
1. massive production of RBC's
2. excessive leukocyte production
3. excessive production of platelets
(cell excess) of the peripheral blood occurs in people with PV
Plethoric skin appearance in patients with PV
the patients facial skin and mucous membranes have a dark flushed appearance. These areas appear purplish or cyanotic because the blood in these tissues is poorly oxygenated.
is the withdrawal of whole blood and removal of the patients RBC's to decrease the number of RBC's and reduce blood viscosity. Done to a patient with polycythemia vera.
low white blood cell count
are a group of disorders caused by the formation of abnormal bone marrow cells. These abnormal cells are usually destroyed shortly after they are released. As a result patients have decrease in all blood cell types.
is the chemical binding of iron and its removal from the body
is a type of cancer with uncontrolled production of immature WBC's (usually blast cells) in the bone marrow. The bone marrow becomes overcrowded with immature, nonfunctional cells and production of normal blood cells is greatly decreased
the basic problem of leukemia is it involves damage to genes controlling cell growth. This damage then changes cells from a normal to a malignant cancer state.
bone marrow hypoplasia
reduced production of blood cells. Risk that happens with the development of leukemia.
acute leukemia integumentary manifestations
-open infected lesions
-pallor of the conjunctivae, nail beds, palmar creases, and around the mouth
acute leukemia GI manifestations
-enlarged liver and spleen
acute leukemia renal manifestations
acute leukemia cardiovascular manifestations
--tachycardia at basal activity levels
acute leukemia respiratory manifestations
dyspnea on exertion
acute leukemia neurologic manifestations
acute leukemia musculoskeletal manifestations
-joint swelling and pain
allogeneic bone marrow transplantation
transplantation of bone marrow from a sibling or matched unrelated donor
patients receive their own stem cells which were collected before high dose therapy
are those with the stem cells taken from the patients identical sibling
peripheral blood stem cell are stem cells that have been released from the bone marrow and circulate within the blood. There numbers can be artificially increased.
the successful take of the transplanted cells in the patients bone marrow, is key to the whole transplantation process.
period of greatest bone marrow suppression, the platelet count may be very low. He or she is at extreme risk for bleeding once the platelet count falls below 50,000 and spontaneous bleeding often occurs when the platelet count is lower then 20,000.
heparin induced thrombocytopenia
is a serious immune mediated clotting disorder that features an unexplained drop in platelet count after heparin treatment with or without thrombotic complications
fresh frozen plasma
freezing preserves the clotting factors, and the plasma can then be used for patients with clotting disorders
is a product derived from plasma
withdrawing whole blood, filtering out the cells, and returning the plasma to the patient.
words on page 883, 884 did not make cards for.... did not do table 42-2, 42-3, 42-4, 42-5, 42-6.... read the green boxes
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
Ch 38: Vascular Disorders
Ch 39- SHOCK
Pharm Chap. 30
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