46 terms

Chapter 10--Development

Rubenstein and Fellman
STUDY
PLAY
Brandt Line
division of the world between MDCs and LDCs (MDCs in north have relatively high HDIs while southern countries have lower indexes)
Core-Periphery model
a model that describes how economic, political, and/or cultural power is spatially distributed between dominant core regions, and more marginal or dependent semi-peripheral and peripheral regions
developing country
a country in which the society is less modern and less industrialized and in which inhabitants are generally poorer than they are in developed countries
economic indicators
measures a country's wealth, to decide if a country is developed or developing (i.e. GDP, types of jobs, worker productivity and availability of consumer goods)
development
a process of improvement in the conditions of people through diffusion of knowledge and technology
GDP
(Gross Domestic Product)--the total value of the goods and services produced in a country during a given time period (usually annually), not accounting for money that leaves and enters a country
GNI
(Gross National Income)--the value of the output of goods and services produced in a country in a period of time, including money that leaves and enters the country
GDI
(Gender-Related Development Index)--compares the level of development of women with that of both sexes
HDI
(Human Development Index)--indicator of level of development for each country, constructed by United Nations, combining GDP, literacy, education, and life expectancy
literacy rate
the percentage of a country's people who can read and write
neo-colonialism
a disparaging reference to economic and political policies by which major developed countries are seen to retain or extend influence over the economies of less developed countries and peoples
primary sector
the portion of the economy concerned with the direct extraction of materials from Earth's surface, generally through agriculture, although sometimes by mining, fishing, and forestry
productivity
the value of a particular product compared to the amount of labor needed to make it
quaternary sector
the parts of the economy concerned with research, the gathering and dissemination of information, and with administration; often considered only as a specialized subdivision of tertiary activities
Rostow's Modernization Model
(also called Rostow's Development Model)--countries develop through five stages:
Stage 1: Traditional
Stage 2: Preconditions for takeoff
Stage 3: Takeoff
Stage 4: Drive to Maturity
Stage 5: Age of Mass Consumption
secondary sector
the portion of the economy concerned with manufacturing useful products through processing, transforming, and assembling raw materials
structural adjustment program
economic policies imposed on less developed countries by international agencies to create conditions encouraging international trade, such as raising taxes, reducing government spending, controlling inflation, selling publicly owned utilities to private corporations, and charging citizens more for services
subsistence economy
an economic system of relatively simple technology in which people produce most or all of the goods to satisfy their own and their family's needs; little or no exchange occurs outside or the immediate or extended family
tertiary sector
The portion of the economy concerned with transportation, communications, and utilities, sometimes extended to the provision of all goods and services to people in exchange for payment.
trickle-down effects
(also called spread effect)--the diffusion outward of the benefits of economic growth and prosperity from the power center or core area to poorer districts and people
transnational corporation
a company that conducts research, operates factories, and sells products in many countries, not just where its headquarters or shareholders are located
value added
the gross value of the product minus the costs of raw materials and energy
WTO
(World Trade Organization)--an international organization based in Geneva that monitors and enforces rules governing global trade
Foreign Direct Investment (FDI)
investment made by a foreign company (transnational corporations) in the economy of another country. This includes the purchase or construction of foreign factories and also merging with foreign companies.
World Systems Theory
an approach to world history and social change that suggests there is a world economic system in which some countries benefit while others are exploited. This theory builds on the Dependency Theory. The most known world systems theory was developed by Immanuel Wallerstein
Immanuel Wallerstein
the geographer who developed the World Systems Analysis (he calls it "analysis", not "theory")
Dependency Theory
the notion that resources flow from a "periphery" of poor and underdeveloped states to a "core" of wealthy states, enriching the latter at the expense of the former. It's often considered a neo-marxist theory, where some countries are the "haves" and some are the "have nots"
sustainable development goals
Seventeen goals adopted by the U.N. in 2015 to reduce disparities between developed and developing countries by 2030 (replaced the Millennial Development Goals)
income disparity (aka income inequality)
refers to the extent to which income is distributed in an uneven manner among a population. In the United States, income inequality, or the gap between the rich and everyone else, has been growing markedly, by every major statistical measure, for some 30 years.
Gini coefficient
a measure of statistical dispersion intended to represent the income distribution of a nation's residents, and is the most commonly used measure of inequality. (also known as the Gini index or Gini ratio) (Is wealth shared equally by all citizens of a country? Or are there a few very, very wealthy people and everyone else is really poor? Or somewhere in between)
uneven development
The increasing gap in economic conditions between core and peripheral regions as a result of the globalization of the economy.
natural resource depletion
Resource depletion is the consumption of a resource faster than it can be replenished. Natural resources are commonly divided between renewable resources and non-renewable resources. Use of either of these forms of resources beyond their rate of replacement is considered to be resource depletion.
basic industry
Industry that sells their products or services primarily to consumers outside the settlement. City-forming instead of city-serving.
nonbasic industry
Industries that produces goods or services that are consumed locally.
regional multiplier
The stimulation of economic growth by growth itself. As secondary industries develop they create a demand for raw materials and goods. Thus, machinery is made from steel and this stimulates steel manufacturing while the development of the steel industry requires more machinery. As manufacturing industry prospers, more jobs arise in service industries.
cooperative store
a member-owned, member-governed business that operates for the benefit of its members
female labor force participation
the percentage of women holding full time jobs outside the home
inequality-adjusted HDI
modification of the HDI to account for inequality within a country
gender inequality index
a measure of the extent of each country's gender inequality in terms of reproductive health, empowerment, and the labor market
adolescent fertility rate
the number of births per 1,000 women ages 15 to 19
developed country
a country that has progressed relatively far along a continuum of development
purchasing power parity
the amount of money needed in one country to purchase the same goods and services in another country
fair trade
Products are made with standards to protect workers and small businesses in periphery exporters
maternal mortality rate
number of deaths during or shortly after childbirth (per 100,000)
microfinance
the granting of small ("micro"), unsecured loans to small businesses and entrepreneurs in developing countries
Millennium Development Goals
eight goals established by the UN in 2000 to foster development in a sustainable and equal manner (replaced by the Sustainable Development Goals in 2015)