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cell size shape position number and adhesivity

5 factors of cell change that cause morphogenesis

genetic mutation, environmental insult

2 causes of dysmorphogenesis


Any agent that can disturb the development of an embryo or fetus. includes drugs, alcohol ; environmental insult

8-38 weeks

what is defined as the fetal period?

8th week

when are the organ systems mature and become fully functional?

blastocyst implantation stimulates endometrial cells, and stroma cells become decidual cells

what happens to maternal endometrial cells upon implantation of a blastocyst?

tertiary stem villi change dependent on the location

what is the difference between the smooth chorion and chorion frondusum?

maternal placenta contains about 150mL of blood replaced 3-4 times per minute

what are the blood flow amounts through the placenta?

oyxgen and nutrients come in, waste comes out; antibodies provide baby with passive immunity

what crosses the placenta?

Antibodies cross over and fetal RBCS die due to Rh incompatibility, hemolytic disease of newborn

describe the disease mechanism of erythroblastosis fetalis

Toxoplasma-cat litter
Other- Parovirus, varicella zoster
Rubella- German measles
Cytomeglovirus- assymptomatic in adults
Herpes virus

identify viruses that can cross the placenta?

untreated= 25-40%
treated= can be as low as 1%

infection rates of HIV in treated vs untreated mothers

lung or kidney disease, High blood pressure, preeclampsia, rubella, teratogen, anemia, diabetes

4 causes of intrauterine growth restriction

HGC, HPL, estrogen, progesterone

4 placental hormones

blood plasma

amniotic fluid can be compared to _________


reduction in amniotic fluid may be a sign of ________

monozygotic- share membranes, placenta, failure to fully separate creates conjoined twins
dizygotic- separate membranes and placenta, may be different sexes, appear to have genetic component

monozygotic vs. dizygotic twins

alpha-fetoprotein fetal liver function
tests for down or nerual tube defects

3 things tested during maternal serum screening

takes pictures of baby using sound waves, also used to guide needles during amniocentesis or chorionic villus sampling

2 purposes of ultrasonography

14-16 weeks

when can an amniocentesis be performed?

metabolic byproducts that may signal disease

what is an amniocentesis checking for?

surgical or drug intervention

what are 2 methods of prenatal treatment?

lack of discomfort during collection, high recovery of viable stem cells, rapid expansion of cells in culture, able to be cryopreserved, reduced graft vs host disease

what are 5 advantages of stem chord cells?


One of the lobules constituting the uterine side of the mammalian placenta, consisting mainly of a rounded mass of villi.

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