Any agent that can disturb the development of an embryo or fetus. includes drugs, alcohol ; environmental insult
blastocyst implantation stimulates endometrial cells, and stroma cells become decidual cells
what happens to maternal endometrial cells upon implantation of a blastocyst?
tertiary stem villi change dependent on the location
what is the difference between the smooth chorion and chorion frondusum?
maternal placenta contains about 150mL of blood replaced 3-4 times per minute
what are the blood flow amounts through the placenta?
oyxgen and nutrients come in, waste comes out; antibodies provide baby with passive immunity
what crosses the placenta?
Antibodies cross over and fetal RBCS die due to Rh incompatibility, hemolytic disease of newborn
describe the disease mechanism of erythroblastosis fetalis
Other- Parovirus, varicella zoster
Rubella- German measles
Cytomeglovirus- assymptomatic in adults
identify viruses that can cross the placenta?
treated= can be as low as 1%
infection rates of HIV in treated vs untreated mothers
lung or kidney disease, High blood pressure, preeclampsia, rubella, teratogen, anemia, diabetes
4 causes of intrauterine growth restriction
monozygotic- share membranes, placenta, failure to fully separate creates conjoined twins
dizygotic- separate membranes and placenta, may be different sexes, appear to have genetic component
monozygotic vs. dizygotic twins
alpha-fetoprotein fetal liver function
tests for down or nerual tube defects
3 things tested during maternal serum screening
takes pictures of baby using sound waves, also used to guide needles during amniocentesis or chorionic villus sampling
2 purposes of ultrasonography
lack of discomfort during collection, high recovery of viable stem cells, rapid expansion of cells in culture, able to be cryopreserved, reduced graft vs host disease
what are 5 advantages of stem chord cells?