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MERP Immunology Mini 1 study guide

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Cells of the immune system
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1. Originate from hematopoietic stem cell in bone marrow.
2. Gives rise to two major lineages:
a) myeloid progenitor cell that gives rise to: monocytes, macrophages, dendritic cells, meagakaryocytes, granulocytes and mast cells
b) lymphoid progenitor cell that gives rise to: T cells (matures in thymus), B cells, natural killer (NK) and dendritic cells
1. Surface wound introduces bacteria that activate resident effector cells to secrete cytokines
2. Vasodilation and increased vascular permeability allow fluid, protein and inflammatory cells to leave blood and enter tissue
3. Capillary endothelial cells shrink and increase expression of adhesion molecules so inflammatory cells can bind and go through spaces into tissue
1. Attract other leukocytes to the infection site
2. Signal blood vessel endothelial cells to express more adhesion molecules so leukocytes can stick and move between endothelial cells to enter tissues
3. Increase amount of fluid that can leave the circulation to antibacterial molecules enter the infection site
4. Signal bone marrow to produce more leukocytes