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Vocabulary and Concepts


How organisms obtain, process, and and use their energy resources


The study of the structure of an organism


The study of the functions an organism performs

Physical Laws and Animal Form

Physical laws and the need to exchange materials with the environment place certain limits on the range of animal forms. (Fish in water (leen), bird in sky (weigh less))

How size and shape effect how the animal exchanges energy and materials with the environment

Allow all of its living cells to be bathed in an aqueous medium

Benefits of complex bodies

Protect against predators, large muscles can enable rapid movement, internal digestive organs can break down food gradually, controlling the release of energy


Groups of cells with a common structure and function

Epithelial Tissue

Tissue that covers the outside of the body and lines organs and cavities within the body; cells are closely joined

Function of Epithelial Tissue

Tightly packed cells enable tissue to be a barrier against mechanical injury, microbes, and fluid loss

Glandular epithelia

Tissue that absorbs or secretes chemical solutions

Simple epithelium

Type of ephitelial tissue that has a single layer of cells

Stratified epithelium

Type of ephitelial tissue that has multiple tiers of cells

Connective Tissue

Tissue that binds and supports other tissues; sparse population of cells scattered through an extracellular matrix

What makes up Connective Tissue

Proteins: collagenous fibers, elastic fibers, and reticular fibers

Collagenous Fibers

Fibers made of collagen; most abundant protein; nonelastic and don't tear easily when pulled lengthwise

Elastic Fibers

Fibers that are long threads made of elastin; provide rubbery quality (opposite of collagenous)

Reticular Fibers

Fibers that are very thin and branched; made of collagen and continuous with collagenous fibers; form tightly woven fabric that joins connective tissue and adjacent tissue

Major types of connective tissue

Loose connective tissue, adipose tissue, fibrous connective tissue, cartilage, bone, and blood


Cells in connective tissue; secrete thte protein ingredients of the extracellular fibers

Muscle Tissue

Tissue composed of long cells called muscle fibers; capable of contracting when stimulated by nerve signals; most abundant tissue

Three types of muscle tissue

skeletal muscle, cardiac muscle, and smooth muscle

Nervous Tissue

Tissue that senses stimuli and transmits signals in the form of nerve impulses from one part of the animal to another


Functional unit of nervous tissue; transmits nerve impulses


Sheets of connective tissue that suspend many of the organs of vertebrates

Thoracic Cavity

Cavity that houses the lungs and heart that is separated from the lower abdominal cavity by a sheet of muscle called the diaphragm

Why animals require energy

Growth, repair, phsysiological processes (movement), regulation, and reproduction

Metabolic Rate

The amount of energy an animal uses in a unit of time

Energy is measured in

Calories or kilocalories

Ways metabolic rate can be determined

Monitoring animal's rate of heat loss; determine the amount of oxygen consumed or carbon dioxide produced by animal


Bodies of organisms are warmed mostly by heat generated by metabolism and body temp is kept within low range; higher metabolic rate


Organism gains heat mostly from external sources; lower metabolic rate

Size and Metabolic Rate

The smaller the animal the greater the energy cost of maintaining a stable body temperature (greater intake of energy proportionally)

Basal Metabolic Rate (BMR)

Metabolic rate of a nongrowing, resting, fasting, and unstressed endotherm

Standard Metabolic Rate (SMR)

Metabolic rate of a nongrowing, resting, fasting, and unstressed ectotherm

Stratified columnar epithelium

Lines the inner surface of the urethra

Simple columnar epithelium

Lines the intestines; secretes digestive juices and absorbs nutrients

Psuedostratified cilated columnar epithelium

Forms a mucous membrane that lines the respiratory tract; keeps lungs clean

Cuboidal epithelia

Make up the epithelia of kidney tubules and many glands; specialized for sercretion

Simple squamous epithelia

Thin and leaky; function in the exchange of material by diffusion; line blood vessels and air sacs of lungs

Stratified squamous epithelia

Replacements for celss that are continually sloughed off; on the outer skin and lingers of the esophagus, anus, and vagina; protect underlying tissues


Made of collagenous fibers; located in the discs that act as cushions between bones; flexibility allows them to absorb considerable physical impact without breaking

Adipose Tissue

Specialized form of loose connective tissue; stores fat in adipose cells; insulates the body

Fibrous connective tissue

Dense tissue because of collagenous fibers; organized into parallel bundles; found in tendons and ligaments


Attach muscles to bones


Joins bones together at joints


Mineralized connective tissue; made of bone-forming cells called osteoblasts; calcium, magnesium, and phosphate ions account for the hardness


Makes the microscopic structure of hard mammalian bone; has concentric layers of the mineralized matrix


Matrix is liquid consisting of water, salts, and a variety of dissolved proteins; two types of cells: erythrocytes, leukocytes, and platelets


Red blood cells; carry oxygen

Skeletal muscle

Responsible for voluntary movements of the body; consists of fibers; also called striated muscle

Cardiac muscle

Forms the contractile wall of the heart; carries out unconcious task (contraction of the heart)

Smooth muscle

Lacks striations; found in the walls of the digestive tract, urinary bladder, arteries, and internal organs; spindle-shaped cells; contract slowly but for longer periods of time; responsible for involuntary movements of the body (churning stomach or constriction of arteries)


Mouth, pharynx, esophagus; food processing


Heart, blood vessels, blood; internal distribution of materials


Lungs, trachea, other breathing tubes; gas exchange

Immune and Lymphatic

Bone marrow, lymph nodes, white blood cells; body defense


Kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder; disposal of metabolic waste


Pituitary, thyroid, pancreas; coordination of body activities (digestion and metabolism)


Ovaries, testes; reproduction


Brain, spinal cord, nerves; coordination of body activities, detection of stimuli and formulating responses


Skin and its derivatives (hair); protection against mechanical injury, infection, drying out


Skeleton (bones); body support, protection of internal organs, movement


Skeletal muscles; movement

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