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63 terms

Chapter 40 Sections 1-3 Quiz

Vocabulary and Concepts
STUDY
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Bioenergentics
How organisms obtain, process, and and use their energy resources
Anatomy
The study of the structure of an organism
Physiology
The study of the functions an organism performs
Physical Laws and Animal Form
Physical laws and the need to exchange materials with the environment place certain limits on the range of animal forms. (Fish in water (leen), bird in sky (weigh less))
How size and shape effect how the animal exchanges energy and materials with the environment
Allow all of its living cells to be bathed in an aqueous medium
Benefits of complex bodies
Protect against predators, large muscles can enable rapid movement, internal digestive organs can break down food gradually, controlling the release of energy
Tissue
Groups of cells with a common structure and function
Epithelial Tissue
Tissue that covers the outside of the body and lines organs and cavities within the body; cells are closely joined
Function of Epithelial Tissue
Tightly packed cells enable tissue to be a barrier against mechanical injury, microbes, and fluid loss
Glandular epithelia
Tissue that absorbs or secretes chemical solutions
Simple epithelium
Type of ephitelial tissue that has a single layer of cells
Stratified epithelium
Type of ephitelial tissue that has multiple tiers of cells
Connective Tissue
Tissue that binds and supports other tissues; sparse population of cells scattered through an extracellular matrix
What makes up Connective Tissue
Proteins: collagenous fibers, elastic fibers, and reticular fibers
Collagenous Fibers
Fibers made of collagen; most abundant protein; nonelastic and don't tear easily when pulled lengthwise
Elastic Fibers
Fibers that are long threads made of elastin; provide rubbery quality (opposite of collagenous)
Reticular Fibers
Fibers that are very thin and branched; made of collagen and continuous with collagenous fibers; form tightly woven fabric that joins connective tissue and adjacent tissue
Major types of connective tissue
Loose connective tissue, adipose tissue, fibrous connective tissue, cartilage, bone, and blood
Fibroblasts
Cells in connective tissue; secrete thte protein ingredients of the extracellular fibers
Muscle Tissue
Tissue composed of long cells called muscle fibers; capable of contracting when stimulated by nerve signals; most abundant tissue
Three types of muscle tissue
skeletal muscle, cardiac muscle, and smooth muscle
Nervous Tissue
Tissue that senses stimuli and transmits signals in the form of nerve impulses from one part of the animal to another
Neuron
Functional unit of nervous tissue; transmits nerve impulses
Mesenteries
Sheets of connective tissue that suspend many of the organs of vertebrates
Thoracic Cavity
Cavity that houses the lungs and heart that is separated from the lower abdominal cavity by a sheet of muscle called the diaphragm
Why animals require energy
Growth, repair, phsysiological processes (movement), regulation, and reproduction
Metabolic Rate
The amount of energy an animal uses in a unit of time
Energy is measured in
Calories or kilocalories
Ways metabolic rate can be determined
Monitoring animal's rate of heat loss; determine the amount of oxygen consumed or carbon dioxide produced by animal
Endothermic
Bodies of organisms are warmed mostly by heat generated by metabolism and body temp is kept within low range; higher metabolic rate
Ectothermic
Organism gains heat mostly from external sources; lower metabolic rate
Size and Metabolic Rate
The smaller the animal the greater the energy cost of maintaining a stable body temperature (greater intake of energy proportionally)
Basal Metabolic Rate (BMR)
Metabolic rate of a nongrowing, resting, fasting, and unstressed endotherm
Standard Metabolic Rate (SMR)
Metabolic rate of a nongrowing, resting, fasting, and unstressed ectotherm
Stratified columnar epithelium
Lines the inner surface of the urethra
Simple columnar epithelium
Lines the intestines; secretes digestive juices and absorbs nutrients
Psuedostratified cilated columnar epithelium
Forms a mucous membrane that lines the respiratory tract; keeps lungs clean
Cuboidal epithelia
Make up the epithelia of kidney tubules and many glands; specialized for sercretion
Simple squamous epithelia
Thin and leaky; function in the exchange of material by diffusion; line blood vessels and air sacs of lungs
Stratified squamous epithelia
Replacements for celss that are continually sloughed off; on the outer skin and lingers of the esophagus, anus, and vagina; protect underlying tissues
Cartilage
Made of collagenous fibers; located in the discs that act as cushions between bones; flexibility allows them to absorb considerable physical impact without breaking
Adipose Tissue
Specialized form of loose connective tissue; stores fat in adipose cells; insulates the body
Fibrous connective tissue
Dense tissue because of collagenous fibers; organized into parallel bundles; found in tendons and ligaments
Tendons
Attach muscles to bones
Ligaments
Joins bones together at joints
Bone
Mineralized connective tissue; made of bone-forming cells called osteoblasts; calcium, magnesium, and phosphate ions account for the hardness
Osteons
Makes the microscopic structure of hard mammalian bone; has concentric layers of the mineralized matrix
Blood
Matrix is liquid consisting of water, salts, and a variety of dissolved proteins; two types of cells: erythrocytes, leukocytes, and platelets
Erythrocytes
Red blood cells; carry oxygen
Skeletal muscle
Responsible for voluntary movements of the body; consists of fibers; also called striated muscle
Cardiac muscle
Forms the contractile wall of the heart; carries out unconcious task (contraction of the heart)
Smooth muscle
Lacks striations; found in the walls of the digestive tract, urinary bladder, arteries, and internal organs; spindle-shaped cells; contract slowly but for longer periods of time; responsible for involuntary movements of the body (churning stomach or constriction of arteries)
Digestive
Mouth, pharynx, esophagus; food processing
Circulatory
Heart, blood vessels, blood; internal distribution of materials
Respiratory
Lungs, trachea, other breathing tubes; gas exchange
Immune and Lymphatic
Bone marrow, lymph nodes, white blood cells; body defense
Excretory
Kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder; disposal of metabolic waste
Endocrine
Pituitary, thyroid, pancreas; coordination of body activities (digestion and metabolism)
Reproductive
Ovaries, testes; reproduction
Nervous
Brain, spinal cord, nerves; coordination of body activities, detection of stimuli and formulating responses
Integumentary
Skin and its derivatives (hair); protection against mechanical injury, infection, drying out
Skeletal
Skeleton (bones); body support, protection of internal organs, movement
Muscular
Skeletal muscles; movement