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Bowen's reaction series

sequential, predictable, dual-branched pattern in which minerals crystallize from cooling magma

extrusive rocks

fine-grained igneous rocks that cool quickly on Earth's surface

fractional crystallization*

the process wherein different minerals form at different temperatures

igneous rock

formed from the crystallization of magma

intrusive rocks

coarse-grained rocks that cool slowly beneath Erath's surface


magma that flows out onto the Earth's surface

partial melting*

the process whereby some minerals melt at low temperatures while other minerals remain solid

felsic rocks

light-colored rocks that have high silica content and contain quartz and the feldspars orthoclase and plagioclase


rare ultramafic rock that can contain diamonds and other minerals formed only under very high pressures

mafic rocks

dark-colored rocks that have low silica content and are rich in iron and magensium.


vein deposits of extremely large-grained minerals that contain rare ores such as lithium and beryllium


rock texture characterized by large, well-formed crystals surrounded by finer-grained crystals of the same material


igneous rocks with low silica content and very high levels of magnesium and iron.

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