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Ch. 5 Igneous rocks Earth Science

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Bowen's reaction series
sequential, predictable, dual-branched pattern in which minerals crystallize from cooling magma
extrusive rocks
fine-grained igneous rocks that cool quickly on Earth's surface
fractional crystallization*
the process wherein different minerals form at different temperatures
igneous rock
formed from the crystallization of magma
intrusive rocks
coarse-grained rocks that cool slowly beneath Erath's surface
lava
magma that flows out onto the Earth's surface
partial melting*
the process whereby some minerals melt at low temperatures while other minerals remain solid
felsic rocks
light-colored rocks that have high silica content and contain quartz and the feldspars orthoclase and plagioclase
kimberlite*
rare ultramafic rock that can contain diamonds and other minerals formed only under very high pressures
mafic rocks
dark-colored rocks that have low silica content and are rich in iron and magensium.
pegmatite*
vein deposits of extremely large-grained minerals that contain rare ores such as lithium and beryllium
porphyritic
rock texture characterized by large, well-formed crystals surrounded by finer-grained crystals of the same material
ultramafic*
igneous rocks with low silica content and very high levels of magnesium and iron.