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164 terms

DH Boards; Head/Neck/Dental Anatomy

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What are the parts of the temporal bone?
mastoid orcess
styloid process
articular fossa and eminence
stylomastoid foramen (VII)
Petrous portion
What part of the temporal bone houses the hearing components?
Petrous portion
What bone is the most medial bone of the orbit?
Lacrima
What boneare the superior orbital fissure, foramen rotundum, and foramen ovale found in?
Sphenoid *(Sphenoid is so crowded that it's a Standing room Only)
What does the condyl allow the jaw to do?
Rotate
What muscle attaches to the coronoid process?
Temporalis
What is a soft tissue landmark behind the lower molars?
Retromolar triangle
Oh Oh Oh, to touch and feel vande graffs very accessable hair!
Olfactory
Optic
Oculomotor
Trochlear
Trigeminal
Abducens
Facia
Vestibulocochlear
Glossopharyngeal
Vagus
Accessory
Hypoglossal
What is the function of the Olfactory nerve?
Sensory (some); sense of smell
What is the function of the optic nerve?
Sensory (say); sense of sight
What is the function of the Oculomotor?
Motor (money); eye muscles, pupil, lens
What is the function of the Trochlear nerve?
Motor (matters); eye muscles
What is the function of the Trigeminal nerve?
Both (but) Opthalmic, maxilary and Mandibular divisions
What is the function of the abducens nervve?
Motor (my); eye muscle
What is the function of the facial nerve?
Both (brother); muscle of facial expression
taste (ANTERIOR 2/3 of tongue via chorda tympani)
Sublingual and sub mental salivary glands
what is the function of the vestibulocochclear nerve?
Sensory (says); sense of balance and hearing
What is the function of the glossopharyngeal nerve?
Both (big); posterior 1/3 of tongue, parotid gland
What is the function of the vagus nerve?
Both (boobs); smooth muscle of glands of the body and Cardiac muscle
What is the function of the Accessory nerve?
Motor (matter); trapezius, sternocleidomastoid muscle, pharynx and larynx
What is the function of the hypoglossal nerve?
Motor (more); muscles of the tongue (except palatoglossus, X, XI)
What nerve supplied to the muscles of mastication?
Mandibular division of Tigeminal nerve
What artery supplies blood to the muscles of mastication?
Maxillary artery
What are the 4 muscles of mastication?
Temporalis
Masseter
Medial Ptyerygoid
Lateral Ptyerygoid
What muscles elevate the mandible?
Must Take Matt on the Elevator!
Masseter, Temporalis, Medial Ptyerygoid
What muscles depresses the mandible?
Later, be depressed and high
Lateral Ptyerygoid, Hyoid mucles
What muscle allows side to side movement of mandible?
Lateral pterygoid, lateral movement with the lateral pterygoid
The masseter and medial pterygoid muscles have similar movements and locations, but how are they in relation to each other?
Medial pterygoid is internal; Masseter is external (think of giving an IA injection, the medial pterygoid is providing resistance)
What is a fibrous pad of dense collegen tissue, prevents bone to bone contact, divides the TMJ into upper and lower synovial cavities, and moves with the condyle under normal functions?
Articular disc
What is a fibrous tissue surrounding the TMJ; secretes synovial fluid?
Capsule
What is the movement where the condyle rotates in the fossa>?
Rotation
What is the movement where the condyle slides forward along the articualr fossa to the articular eminence>?
Translation
What muscle retrudes the mandible?
temporalis
What muscle protrudes the mandible?
lateral pterygoid
What nerve inervates the muscles of facial expression?
The Facial nerve (VII)
What artery feeds the muscles of facial expression?
the facial artery (a branch off of the External Carotid Artery)
What 2 nerves inervate the hyoid muscles?
Trigeminal and Facial
What four infrahyoid muslces stabilize the hyoid?
Thyrohyoid
Sternothyroid
Sternohyoid
Omohyoid
What 4 supra-hyoid muscles depress (open) the mandible?
Mylohyoi-floor of mouth
genio hyoid
digastric
stylohyoid
What is the nerve inervation of the Sternocleidomastoid muscle and its action?
Accessory nerve XI; tilts and rotates the head
What is the pacemaker of the heart; where is it located?
SA (SinoAtrial) Node; right atrial wall
What artery supplies the heart with blood?
Coronary arteries
In an emergency, where do you check the pulse in an adult? Child?
Adult-carotid; Child-brachial
Non-emergency, where do you check the puse in an adult? Child?
Adult-radial; Child-brachial still
In an adult, where do you place BP cuff?
over the brachial artery
Flow of de-oxygenated blood from body to lungs?
superior and inferior vena cavae-->
Right Atrium-->
tricuspid valve-->
right ventricle-->
pulmonary artery to lungs
Flow of oxygenated blood from lungs to body?
from lungs in pulmonary vein-->
left atrium-->
bicuspid (mitral) valve-->
left ventricle-->
Aorta
3 major branches off of the external carotid artery to know?
Maxillary
Lingual
Facial
What does the Maxillary Art. supply?
teeth
muscles of mastication
ear
What does the lingual art. supply?
tongue
floor of mouth
What does the facial art. supply?
muscles of facial expression
lips
eyelids
soft palate
throat
What vein runs with the carotid artery?
Jugular vein
Where does the blood from maxillary vein drain into?
Pterygoid plexus
What structures drain into the plexus?
teeth, muscles of mastication, buccinator, nose, palate
What sinus containing blood is locate on each side of the body of the sphenoid bone, near the base of the brain, behind the nose?
cavernous sinus
During pregnancy, fetal pressure on what could cause orthostatic hypotension?
Vena cava
Tender or enlarged lymph nodes can indicate what?
infection and/or malignancy
Where are lymphocytes derived from?
stem cells in the bone marrow
Where are lymphocytes present in?
lymph nodes
Where do T cells mature?
thymus
Submental nodes-->____________-->Deep cerival nodes
submental nodes --> submandibular nodes--> deep cervial nodes
What houses a ribosome-filled membranous network, and is the site for cellular protein synthesis?
ER; Endoplasmic Reticulum
What packages cellular protein product for secretion?
Golgi bodies
What is the center for energy production (ATP), respiration?
Mitochondria
What is responsible for phagocytosis and digestion within a cell?
Lysosomes (to lyse-kill)
What provides structural support with in a cell?
Filaments and tubules
What is the tissue that lines the oral cavity?
Stratified squamous epithelium;
good for protection, absorption, secretion
What tissue holds together, supports, and connects body parts?
Connective tissue;
bone, cartilage, fibrous, fat, blood, dentin, pulp, collagen
What are the 3 types of muscular tissue?
smooth/involuntary
skelatal/voluntary
cardiac
Most structures of the oral cavity develop from 2 embryonic processes; what are they?
Frontal process
1st branchial arch
The frontal process gives rise to 2 processes and a structure, what are they
forehead
Median nasal process
lateral nasal process
What 3 things does the median nasal process give rise to?
center and tip of nose
nasal septum
globular process (philtrum, premaxillary palate)
What 2 structures does the lateral nasal process give rise to?
sides of nose
infraorbital area
The 1st branchial arch gives rise to what 2 processes?
Maxillary process
Mandibular process
What 3 structures does the maxillary process give rise to?
lateral palatine processes (palatal shelves...bend & snap)
upper parts of cheek
sides of upper lip
What 3 structures does the mandibular process give rise to?
lower jaw
lower parts of the face and lower lip
anterior 2/3 of tongue
Where does the posterior 1/3 of the tongue and hyoid bone develop from?
2 and 3 branchial arches
What week does the development of the FACE begin?
week 3
What seperates the oral cavity from the pharynx until rupturing during the 4th week?
buccopharyngeal membrane
When is the upper lip complete?
6-8 weeks
How is the upper lip formed?
by the fusion of median nasal process and right/left maxiallary process?
When does the palate develop?
6-12 weeks
What does the palate develop from?
the fusion of the globular process and right and left palatal shelves
In what direction do embryonic structures develop from?
anterior --> posterior
When do most abnormalities develop during pregnancy occur?
1st trimester
what 4 nerves innervate the tongue?
5,7,9,12 (sensory, taste, taste, motor)
trigeminal, facial, glossopharyngeal, hypoglossal
What muscles determines the shape of the tongue?
intrinsic muscles
What muscles control the position of the tongue?
Extrinisic muscles
What are the 3 extrinsic muscles of the tongue?
Hyoglossus
Styloglossus
genioglossus
what are the 4 papillae of the tongue?
filiform
fungiform
foliate
circumvalalate
What are the papillae on the tongue that do not contain tastebuds?
filiform
What is it called when the filliform papillae are elongated?
hairy tongue
what minor salivary glads are located in certain papillae, and which papillae are they?
glands of Von Ebner; circumvallate
What is the site of the embryonic origin of the thyroid gland?
foramen caecum
What type of glands are salivary glands, and what does that mean?
Exocrine glands; they have ducts
what type of cells are salivary glands ducts lined with?
Stratified cuboidal epithelial cells
what nervous system controls the salivary gland control?
Parasymathetic nervous system; rest and digest
What salivary gland secretes the most abundant saliva? and what type is it?
sub-mandibular; 65% mixed, mostly serous
What nerve controls the sub-lingual and sub-mandibular glands? Parotid gland?
VII...Facial; IX...Accessory
What duct is associated with submandibular gland?
Whattons duct
What duct is associated with Sublingual gland?
Bartholins duct
What duct is associated with the parotid gland?
Stensons duct
What gland secretes the 2nd most total saliva in the mouth?
Parotid; 25%, serous saliva
What are the 3 developmental layers?
Ectoderm
Mesoderm
Endoderm
What are the 5 stages of tooth development?
Initiation (BUD stage) Starts!
Proliferation (CAP stage) Grows!
Differentiation (BELL stage) Specializes!
Morphogenisis
Maturation
What stageis it when the dental lamina growns into the underlying mesenchymal tissue at 20 places to form the primary teeth?
Initiation (BUD stage)
What stage is it when enamel organ develops from the dental lamina, the dental papilla arises from specialized connective tissue, the dental sac surrounds the developing tooth?
Proliferation (CAP stage)
What does the dental sac give rise to?
PAC the SAC, periodontal ligaments, alveolar bone, cementum
During differentiation, the enamel organ develops into what 4 distinct layers?
Outer enamel epithelium
Stellate reticulum
Stratum intermedium
Inner enamel epithilium
What does the DEJ develop from?
the basement membrane
What cells produce enamel?
Ameloblasts
What cells produce dentin?
Odontoblasts
Outer enamel epi and Inner enamel epi get together to form what?
HERS
What does HERS do?
forms/shapes the roots
Ectoderm-->Dental lamina-->Enamel Organ--> Inner Enamel Epithelium-->Ameloblasts-->Enamel
:)
Term for tooth structure being produced layer by layer?
appositional growth
What is crystalized calcium phosphate?
hydroxyapetite, mineralizes tooth matrix, dentin, cementum, bone
When does root formation end?
1-4 years after eruption
What does the enamel organ condense to form?
REE; reduced enamel epithelium
After eruption, what does the REE give rise to?
junctional epithelium, gingival attachment
HERS are supposed to dissolve, if it doesn't dissolve disolve its remnants are known as what?
Rests of Malassez; have potential to form cysts
What are remnants of the dental lamina known as?
Rests of Serres
Keratinization of the attached gingiva ends where?
free gingiva
What tissues are keratinized?
attached gingiva
hard palate
What tissues are non-keratinized?
alveolar mucosa
vestibular mucosa
buccal mucosa
floor of the mouth
what structures are specialized mucosa?
papillae of the tongue
enamel is how much mineralized?
96%
Dentin is how much mineralized?
70%
Cementum is how much mineralized?
50%
Bone is how much mineralized?
50%
What are incremental lines from mineralization called?
Lines of Retzius
What are ends of odontoblastic processes which cross the DEJ?
Enamel spindles
What dentin is deposited before completion of the root?
Primary dentin
What 2 dentins are primary and where are they located?
Mantle Dentin; 1st layer, immediately adjacent to the DEJ
Circumpulpal dentin; remaining dentin, adjacent to pulp
What dentin develops after the tooth is in occlusion?
Secondary dentin
the odontoblasts retreat from the basement membrane (DEJ), and form what?
dentinal tubules
Where are the cementoblasts located?
PDL
What are cementocytes and where are they located?
they're trapped cementoblasts located in the lacunae
Cementum is thinnest where?
Cervical portion, (CEJ); thickest at apex
Cementum is nourished by what?
PDL
What is the most numerous cell in the pulp?
fibroblasts
Pulp is full of what?
blood vessels
nerve fibers
fibroblasts
odontoblasts
histiocytes
pulp stones?
Periodontal ligaments are composed of what?
collagen and fibroblasts
How are the PDL's attached to cementum?
sharpey's fibers
What is the most numerous fiber?
Oblique
What is the most often missed mesial coronal and root concavity?
Max first pre-molar
What is the pre-molar most often to have 2 roots?
Max first pre-molar
Tooth with the longest root?
Max canine
Cuspid with occasionally bifurcated root (facial/lingual)?
Mandibular cuspid
Teeth most often fails to develop (missing)?
max 3rd molars or max lateral
Which tooth has a non-functional LINGUAL cusp?
Mand 1st pre-molars
Pre-molar which commonly has three cusps?
Mand 2nd pre-molar
tooth which frequently has a 5th cusp?
Mandibular 1st molar
Maxillary 1st molar (cusp of carabelli)
Tooth most often affected by microdontia?
Max lateral
tooth most likely to have a root with 2 canals?
mand 1st molar (mesial root)
tooth most likely to have lingual caries?
Max lateral
Max 1st molar has what that runs from dostobuccal cusp to mesiolingual cusp?
oblique ridge
Which root of Mand 1st molar is the widest and strongest?
Mesial
Tooth with tendency to have divergent roots?
Maxillary first molar
tooth with most unique anatomy?
primary first mandibular molar
When does the first deciduous tooth erupt?
about 6 months old
how old is it when all 20 deciduous teeth complete?
about 30 months
When does the first permanent tooth erupt?
about 6 years
what is usually the FIRST permanent tooth to erupt?
first molar
the last permanent teeth to erupt are what?
either max canines or mand 2nd pre-molars