Sort of. When automation rules are created, or an existing rule's criteria is edited, and the rule is unpaused, the rule will search through all prospects in your account to find matches. In this way, rules are retroactive — a prospect could have begun meeting the criteria last week, but if the automation rule is created today the rule will still find them and match them. If you edit criteria, it will not retroactively unmatch prospects.
Are automation rules retroactive?