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General function of the Immune System.

Identify and neutralize and destroy foreign substances.

Innate (non specific) Defense

1st line of defense: Skin, mucus membrane attack foreign substances without activating the immune system.
2nd Line of Defense: inflammation and anti -microbal, protein and phagocytes.

Adaptive (specific) defense.

includes humeral (B-cells) cell mediated (T-cells) immunity specific respone. They are systemic and require immune activation. This mya generate memory and are specific to particular pathogen.

Protective function of surface epithelia.

membrans that are difficult to penetrate . Made of stratified epithelium , keratinzed and waterproof. Sebacous glands secret sebum which is acidic and kills most bacteria.

Roles of digestive and respiratory mucosae.

Mucus traps particules before they can enter the blood.

2nd line of defense

inflammation,phagocytic cells, and nonspecific chemicals.

inflammatory process

leukocytosis( increase wbc) increase the presences of wbc which release inflammatory chemicals such as histamine.


increase leakage of blood vessels. Heat, redness, pain and swelling are a result of vasodilation.


increase white blood cell count


when the wbc stick to blood vessel endothelium at infection site.


White blood cells cross vessel wall.


WBC engulf pathogens and release inflammatory chemicals.

importance of phagocytes and natural killer cells in non specific defense.

Both and engulf pathogens and destroy cancerous cells without activating the immune system.


secreted by virus infected cells and makes other cells less likely to become infected by virus.

What causes a fever?

Is caused by pyrogen molecules released by leukocytes which reset the hypothalmus to higher temps.

fever help?

1. protect the body by increasing leukocytosis.
2. slows the reproduction of bacteria and viruses.

Complete Antigen

substances that is both immunogentic and reactive.


incomplete antigen. It must bind with a protein to become inmunogentic and reactive

Antigentic Determinate

Specific portion of an antigene which are immunogentic and reactive.


chemical "name tag" which provoke an immune response.

self peptid

are not immunogentic to our own bodies unless autoimmune disease has occur.

Foreign (non Specific) Antigen

provoke immune response.

The role of macrophages and antigen-presenting cells in adaptive immunity.

Macrophages non specifically engulf pathogen and display anti gentic determinate on there class II MHC proteins. At that point phagocytes are called APC and there job is to seek and activate lymphocytes with receptors that are complementary to the anti genetic determinate.

Immune competence

lymphocytes are programmed to fight off one specific antigentic determinate.

Self tolerance

lymphocyte are programmed to ignore body cells. baring self pepetids on there class I mhc Protein.

Antigene Challenge

occurs when an antigenetic determinate combines with a receptor on a symphocyte.

clonal expansion

mature lymphocytes rapidly reprodcue by mitosis

differation of b and t cells

is the process where lymphocytes take on specific roles.


Provide humeral immunity which is when antibodies target pathogenes in the blody fluids.

T cells

Cell mediated immunity which is when pathogenes or pathogen infected body cells are distroyed by t cells.

humoral immunity

B lymphocytes differntiate into plasma cells. which produce antibodies against pathogens in the body fluid.

recount the roles of plasma cells and memory b cells in humoral immunity.

memory b cells become active secondary immune respone. (2nd time you see the same pathogen)

Active immunity

the organism produce antibodies themselves in generate memory its systemic and its specific are antigenic determinate.

2 types of active immunity

Naturally occurred-which is getting sick
Artificial -vaccine with weakened pathogen.

Passive immunity

Another organism produces the antibodies. No Memory and immunity lasts about a week.

2 types of of Passive Immunity

Natural-passed from mother to fetus via breast milk or through palcenta.
Artificial-Injection with just antibodies.

Primary immune response

Peak 10 days after antigen challenge.

secondary immune response.

Antibody levels peak within 3 days memory b cells and anitbody levels are higher in blood plasma longer.

4 classes of organ transplant

1. autograf (self to self)
2.isograf (from identical twin)
3.allograft (among same species)
4.Zinograft (across species)

Cell mediated immunity

T lymphocyes (t-cells) directly attack pathogens or infected cells.

Helper T-cells

CD4 cells (helper tcells) They help activate cytotoxic t-cells and B cells

Cytoxic T cells

CD8 Cells Directly attack pathogens and infected t cells.

memory cells

Activate during 2nd immune response

cypressor t cells

which wind down the immune system.


HIV infects CD4 cells and weakens the immune system making you more susceptible to diseases.

Autoimmune disease

Immune system targets specific types of healthy body cells. RA, Lupus, etc.


Allergy. immune system over reacts.

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