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Meteorology Chapter 7
Terms in this set (45)
scales of motion
a heirarchy from tiny gusts to giant storms (microscale, mesoscale, synoptic scale and planetary)
a scale of atmospheric motion where winds can be described as gusts around and between buildings and dust gusting through the air. Essentially very small scale winds.
The scale of meteorological phenomena that range in size from a few km to about 100 km. Includes local winds thunderstorms and tornadoes
The typical weather map scale that shows features such as high- and low-pressure and fronts over a distance spanning a continent. Also called the cyclonic scale
The largest scale of atmospheric motion. Sometimes called the global scale
turbulent eddies that form downwind of a mountain chain creating hazardous eddies
A sudden change in wind direction and/or speed over a short distance in the atmosphere.
clear air turbulence
eddies that form in clear air
Circulations resulting from changes in the air temp in which warm, less dense, air rises and cold, more dense, air sinks.
movement of air from sea to land during the day when cooler air from above the water moves over the land, forcing the heated, less dense air above the land to rise
movement of air from land to sea at night, created when cooler, denser air from the land forces up warmer air over the sea
monsoon wind system
wind system that changes direction with seasons
The movement of air created by warm air rising and flowing up the slope of a mountain.
the movement of air caused by cool air sinking and moving down the slope of a mountain
downslope winds that are much stronger than mountain breezes.
a warm dry wind blowing down the eastern slopes of the Rockies
Santa Ana wind
warm, dry wind that blows from the east or northeast into southern California
a thick dust storm or sandstorm that blows in the deserts of North Africa and Arabia or on the plains of India
Spinning vortices commonly seen on hot days in dry areas (deserts). They are also called Whirlwinds.
general circulation of the atmosphere
global scale wind (pressure) patterns averaged over a long period of time
a system of vertical and horizontal air circulation predominating in tropical and subtropical regions and creating major weather patterns.
a frequently windless area near the Equator
belt of high pressure or anticyclones
Prevailing winds that blow northeast from 30 degrees north latitude to the equator and that blow southeast from 30 degrees south latitude to the equator
intertropical convergence zone
(ITCZ) boundary near equator where the northeast trades converge with the southeast trades, air rises here
Prevailing winds that blow from west to east between 30 degrees and 60 degrees latitude in both hemispheres
The boundary at which air flowing away from the polar regions collides with the warmer air from the lower latitudes
a low pressure area formed sixty degrees N when the prevailing westerlies rise above the polar easterlies
Prevailing winds that blow from east to west between 60degrees-90degrees latitude in both hemisphere.
a subtropical high-pressure cell that forms in the eastern North Atlantic.
the semi-permanent surface high-pressure center located over the North Pacific Ocean; positioned in subtropical latitudes during winter and middle latitudes during summer
Low pressure over Iceland. Prominent during winter.
a semi-permanent surface low pressure center located over the Pacific Ocean south of Alaska
Over Asia, there is a huge (but shallow) anticyclone (or subtropical highs) which form because of the intense cooling of the land.
narrow bands of high-speed winds that circle the earth, blowing from west to east
subtropical jet stream
between 20 and 30 degrees latitude, one of two main jet streams.
polar front jet stream
River of high-speed air in the upper atmosphere that flows along the polar front
the movement of deep, cold, and nutrient-rich water to the surface
a climate variation that takes place in the tropical Pacific about every three to seven years, for a duration of about one year.
a reversal of airflow between normally low atmospheric pressure over the western Pacific; the cause of El Nino and La Nina
The water in the Eastern Pacific Ocean is cooler than usual-opposite from El Nino
widely spaced interactions between ocean surface temperature and weather conditions.
North Atlantic Oscillation
Seesaw variation in air pressure between Iceland and Azores.
a see-saw in pressure between the arctic and northern mid-latitudes. Similar to the North Atlantic oscillation, but confined to the middle and higher latitudes. Time scale of decades but its phases are irregular.
Pacific Decadel Oscillation
warm phase and cool phase similar to El Nino but different