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Functions of the urinary system

1) regulating plasma concentrations of ions; 2) regulating blood volume and pressure by adjusting the volume of water lost and releasing erythropoietin and renin; 3) helping stabilize blood ph; 4) conserving nurtrients; 5) eliminating organic wastes; 6) synthesizing calcitriol.


steroid hormone secreted by the kidneys when parathyroid hormone is present; stimulates the absorption of calcium and phosphate in the digestive tract

Urinary system includes

kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder, urethra.


kidneys produce a fluid containing water, ions, and soluble compounds.


(micturition) urine is forced out of the body

three concentric layers of the connective tissue

renal capsule, adipose capsule, renal fascia.

renal capsule

covers the outer surface of the organ

adipose capsule

surrounds the renal capsule

renal fascia

anchors the kidney to surrounding structures.


the ureter and renal blood vessels are attached to the ____ of the kidney.

renal sinus

the inner layer of the renal capsule lines the?

The division of the kidney

outer renal cortex, a central renal medulla, and an inner renal sinus.

renal pyramids

medulla cortex contains 6-18, whose tips, or renal papillae, project into the renal sinus.

renal papillae

the apex of the pyramid in a kidney, where urine comes out of

renal columns

composed of cortex separate adjacent pyramids.

renal lobe

consists a renal pyramid, the overlying area of the renal cortex, and adjacent tissues of the renal columns.

minor calyces

subdivisions of the major calyces. they terminate in cuplike arease that encoles the apexes of the medullary pyramids and collect urine fom draining from the pyramidal tips into the pelvis

major calyces

larger, or primary, fingerlike extensions of the renal pelvis


tube that carries urine from the kidney to the urinary bladder

The vasculature of the kidneys

renal, segmental, interlobar, arcuate, and interlobular arteries to the afferent arterioles that supply the nephrons.

renal nerves

the kidneys and ureters are innervated by?


the basic functional unit of the kidney, consists of a renal tube that empties into the collecting system and renal corpuscle.

cortical nephrons

roughly 85% of the nephrons are ___ ___ found in the cortex.

efferent arteriole

the loops of Henle are short and the ___ ___ provides blood to the peritubular capillaries.

peritubular capillaries

surround the renal tubules.

juxtamedullary nephrons

are closer to the medulla, with their loops of Henle extending deep into the renal pyramids.


a small intertwined group of capillaries in the malpighian body

bowman's capsule

(glomerular capsule) cup-shaped structure of the nephron of a kidney which encloses the glomerulus and which filtration takes place.


A cell with branching tentacle-shaped extensions that constitutes the barrier through which blood is filtered in the glomerulus of the kidney.

capsular space

separates the parietal and visceral epithelia.

vascular pole

blood arrives at the ___ ___ of the renal corpuscle via the afferent arteriole and departs in the efferent arteriole.

efferent arteriole

The small artery that carries blood away from the capillaries of the glomerulus.

vesa recta

from the efferent arteriole blood enters the peritubular capillaries and the __ __ that follow the loops of Henle in the medulla.

descending and ascending limb

The loop of Henle includes?

distal convoluted tubule

an important site for the active secretion of ions, acids, and other materials and the reabsorption of sodium ions and adjusting osmotic concentration and balance.

juxtaglomerular apparatus

(15% of nephrons) is composed of the macula densa, juxtaglomerular cells, and the extraglomerular mesangial cells.

collecting system

the DCT opens into the ___ ___. Consists of connecting tubules, collecting ducts, and papillary ducts.

urinary bladder

a hollow muscular organ that serves as a storage reservoir for urine.

median and lateral umbilical ligaments

the bladder is stabilized by these.

internal features

trigone, the neck, and the internal urethral sphincter.


the mucosal lining contains prominent ___.

micturition reflex

the process of urination is coordinated by?

voluntary urination

involves coupling this reflex with the voluntary relaxation of the external urethral sphincter compressing bladder.

proximal convoluted tubule (PCT)

The portion of the nephron between the Bowman's capsule and the loop of Henle.

loop of Henle

(nephron loop) section of nephron tubule that conserves water and minimizes the volume of urine

distal convoluted tubule (DCT)

The portion of the nephron tubule after the loop of Henle, but before the collecting duct. Selective reabsorption and secretion occur here, most notably regulated reabsorption of water and sodium.


diagnostic test for kidney stone. An image obtained by taking an XRay of the kidneys after a radiopaque compound has been administered.


a technique in which an artificial membrane regulates the composition of blood.


solid structures formed from calcium deposits, magnesium, or crystals of uric acid in the kidneys


a condition wherein kidney stones are present in the kidneys.


inflammation of the urethral wall.


a chronic or acute irritation of the prostate gland.

automatic bladder

condition in which the micturition reflex remains intact, but the person cannot prevent the reflexive emptying of the bladder.


inflammation of the lining of the urinary bladder


inability to control urination voluntarily


a condition of pain upon urination

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