Functions of the urinary system
1) regulating plasma concentrations of ions; 2) regulating blood volume and pressure by adjusting the volume of water lost and releasing erythropoietin and renin; 3) helping stabilize blood ph; 4) conserving nurtrients; 5) eliminating organic wastes; 6) synthesizing calcitriol.
steroid hormone secreted by the kidneys when parathyroid hormone is present; stimulates the absorption of calcium and phosphate in the digestive tract
medulla cortex contains 6-18, whose tips, or renal papillae, project into the renal sinus.
consists a renal pyramid, the overlying area of the renal cortex, and adjacent tissues of the renal columns.
subdivisions of the major calyces. they terminate in cuplike arease that encoles the apexes of the medullary pyramids and collect urine fom draining from the pyramidal tips into the pelvis
The vasculature of the kidneys
renal, segmental, interlobar, arcuate, and interlobular arteries to the afferent arterioles that supply the nephrons.
the basic functional unit of the kidney, consists of a renal tube that empties into the collecting system and renal corpuscle.
the loops of Henle are short and the ___ ___ provides blood to the peritubular capillaries.
are closer to the medulla, with their loops of Henle extending deep into the renal pyramids.
(glomerular capsule) cup-shaped structure of the nephron of a kidney which encloses the glomerulus and which filtration takes place.
A cell with branching tentacle-shaped extensions that constitutes the barrier through which blood is filtered in the glomerulus of the kidney.
blood arrives at the ___ ___ of the renal corpuscle via the afferent arteriole and departs in the efferent arteriole.
from the efferent arteriole blood enters the peritubular capillaries and the __ __ that follow the loops of Henle in the medulla.
distal convoluted tubule
an important site for the active secretion of ions, acids, and other materials and the reabsorption of sodium ions and adjusting osmotic concentration and balance.
(15% of nephrons) is composed of the macula densa, juxtaglomerular cells, and the extraglomerular mesangial cells.
the DCT opens into the ___ ___. Consists of connecting tubules, collecting ducts, and papillary ducts.
involves coupling this reflex with the voluntary relaxation of the external urethral sphincter compressing bladder.
proximal convoluted tubule (PCT)
The portion of the nephron between the Bowman's capsule and the loop of Henle.
loop of Henle
(nephron loop) section of nephron tubule that conserves water and minimizes the volume of urine
distal convoluted tubule (DCT)
The portion of the nephron tubule after the loop of Henle, but before the collecting duct. Selective reabsorption and secretion occur here, most notably regulated reabsorption of water and sodium.
diagnostic test for kidney stone. An image obtained by taking an XRay of the kidneys after a radiopaque compound has been administered.
solid structures formed from calcium deposits, magnesium, or crystals of uric acid in the kidneys
condition in which the micturition reflex remains intact, but the person cannot prevent the reflexive emptying of the bladder.