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44 terms

Ch. 26, 27, 28, 30 Pysch

STUDY
PLAY
Memory is best defined as
the persistence of learning through the storage and retrieval of information.
The relatively permanent and limitless storehouse of the memory system is called ________ memory.
long-term
To recognize the active information processing that occurs in short-term memory, researchers have characterized it as ________ memory.
working
The integration of new incoming information with knowledge retrieved from long-term memory involves the activity of
working memory.
A flashbulb memory would typically be stored in ________ memory.
long-term
Rabbits fail to learn a conditioned eye-blink response when the ______ is temporarily deactivated during the process of training.
cerebellum
Our short-term memory span is approximately ________ items.
7
Studies demonstrate that learning causes permanent neural changes in the ________ of animals' neurons.
synapses
Children can better remember an ancient Latin verse if the definition of each unfamiliar Latin word is carefully explained to them. This best illustrates the value of
semantic encoding.
The process by which information is encoded by its meaning is called
semantic encoding.
Information is maintained in short-term memory only briefly unless it is
rehearsed.
Although you can't recall the answer to a question on your psychology midterm, you have a clear mental image of the textbook page on which it appears. Evidently, your ________ encoding of the answer was ________.
visual; automatic
Research reports of repression and recovered memories indicate that
extremely stressful life experiences are especially likely to be well remembered.
As we retrieve memories from our memory bank, we often alter them based on past experiences and our current expectations. This best illustrates
memory construction.
When asked how they felt 10 years ago regarding marijuana issues, people recalled attitudes closer to their current views than to those they actually reported a decade earlier. This best illustrates
memory construction.
The integration of new incoming information with knowledge retrieved from long-term memory involves the activity of
working memory.
Some information in our fleeting ________ is encoded into short-term memory.
sensory memory
After looking up his friend's phone number, Alex was able to remember it only long enough to dial it correctly. In this case, the telephone number was clearly stored in his ________ memory.
short-term
The cerebellum plays a critical role in ________ memory.
implicit
After having a stroke, Aaron has great difficulty recalling any of his subsequent life experiences. He is most likely suffering from
amnesia.
Echoic memory refers to
a momentary sensory memory of auditory stimuli.
Karl Lashley trained rats to solve a maze and then removed pieces of their cortexes. He observed that storage of their maze memories
was not restricted to specific regions of the cortex.
Ebbinghaus' retention curve best illustrates the value of
rehearsal.
Encoding that occurs with no effort or a minimal level of conscious attention is known as
automatic processing.
Your relative success in recalling various items one day after you first heard them listed in order is likely to illustrate
a primacy effect.
Chunking refers to
the organization of information into meaningful units.
The finding that people who sleep after learning a list of nonsense syllables forget less than people who stay awake provides evidence that forgetting may involve
interference
Loftus and Palmer asked two groups of observers how fast two cars had been going in a filmed traffic accident. Observers who heard the vividly descriptive word ?smashed? in relation to the accident later recalled
broken glass at the scene of the accident.
As a child, Andre dreamed that he was chased and attacked by a ferocious dog. Many years later, he mistakenly recalled that this had actually happened to him. Andre's false recollection best illustrates
source amnesia.
Storage is to encoding as ________ is to ________.
retention; acquisition
The three steps in memory information processing are
encoding, storage, retrieval.
After looking up his friend's phone number, Alex was able to remember it only long enough to dial it correctly. In this case, the telephone number was clearly stored in his ________ memory.
short-term
The process of encoding refers to
getting information into memory.
A baseball strikes Ashley in the head and she is momentarily knocked unconscious. The physical injury, though not serious, is most likely to interfere with Ashley's ________ memory.
short-term
Iconic memory refers to
photographic, or picture-image, memory that lasts for only a few tenths of a second.
In Sperling's memory experiment, research participants were shown three rows of three letters, followed immediately by a low, medium, or high tone. The participants were able to report
any one of the three rows of letters.
The rear area of the ________ grows bigger the longer a London cab driver has been navigating the maze of city streets.
hippocampus
According to the serial position effect, when recalling a list of words you should have the greatest difficulty with those
in the middle of the list.
Memory techniques such as acronyms and the peg-word system are called
mnemonic devices.
Which pioneering researcher made extensive use of nonsense syllables in the study of human memory?
Ebbinghaus
Which type of word processing?visual, acoustic, or semantic?results in the greatest retention?
semantic
Repeating someone's name several times shortly after being introduced to that person is an effective strategy for
rehearsal.
Research on memory construction indicates that memories of past experiences are likely to be
distorted by our current assumptions.
When children are interviewed about their recollections of possible sexual abuse, their reports are especially UNRELIABLE if
they are asked specific questions about things that didn't happen.