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APUSH Foner Chapters 7-13

Terms in this set (45)

1. Nearly twenty years after the revolutionary war began, the United States government faced a small-scale revolution by some of its own citizens. As in the previous war, taxes were a central issue. And Alexander Hamilton understood that putting down this rebellion was critical to the life of the nation.
2. In order to create a self-supporting and effective government, Treasury Secretary Hamilton knew he needed to find a steady source of revenue. He proposed an exercise of tax on whiskey produced in the United States, and Congress instituted the levy in 1791. Generally, the citizens of that time felt negatively toward the idea of taxation. The farmers of western Pennsylvania, many of whom distilled whiskey and profited from its sale, proved openly hostile to the idea.
3. In July of 1794, a force of disaffected whiskey rebels attacked and destroyed the home of a tax inspector. The rebellion grew in numbers, if no tin actions, and threatened to spread to other states. Hamilton knew that the presence of a large and potentially hostile force in Pennsylvania could not be tolerated. if the government were to survive, it would have to show itself capable of maintaining order, and keeping control.
4. Hamilton advocated the use of military force; President George Washington instead put state militias on the ready and sent in negotiators. When verbal communication did not prove to be effectual, Washington acquiesced to Hamilton's view. A force of 13,000 militia troops, led by Hamilton and the Virginia governor, Henry Lee, marched into western Pennsylvania.
5. By the time the federal force arrived, the rebellion had collapsed and most of the rebels had fled. Two men were convicted of treason and later pardoned by Washington. Alexander Hamilton was pleased with this result. The fledgling federal government had proven it could keep its order--a necessity if the U.S. was to avoid instability. But many, in particular Thomas Jefferson, thought that this resort to military force was a dangerous error. It convinced them that Hamilton was a man prone to act upon his passion, and revealed that this tendency could lead to perilous situations.

-In 1791, the Whiskey Rebellion was the rebellion that many people took part in to refuse to give the government taxes for Whiskey. For many western farmers, it was much too expensive to have a tax on Whiskey. Eventually, Washington led 13,000 militia to silence the rebels. The Whiskey Rebellion was extremely significant, because it was one of the first major oppositions to the U.S. government under the constitution. Additionally, Washington and Hamilton responded rather harshly, silencing people rebelling against governmental politics, something against the Declaration of Independence.
1. These resolutions were passed by the legislatures of Kentucky and Virginia in response to the Alien and Sedition Acts of 1798.
2. Respectively authored by Thomas Jefferson and James Madison.
3. The resolutions argued that the federal government had no authority to exercise power not specifically delegated to it in the Constitution.
4. The Virginia Resolution (Madison), said that by enacting the Alien and Sedation Acts, Congress was exercising, "a power not delegated by the Constitution, but on the contrary, expressly and positively forbidden by one of the amendments thereto; a power, which more than any other, ought to produce universal alarm, because it is levelled against that right of freely examining public characters and measure, and of free communication among the people thereon, which has ever been justly deemed, the only effectual guardian of every other right." From this statement, Madison hoped that other states would register their opposition to the Alien and Sedition Acts as beyond the powers given to Congress.
5. The Kentucky Resolutions (Jefferson), took one step further than Madison's Virginia Resolution in asserting that states had the power to nullify unconstitutional federal laws.
-The Kentucky Resolution declared in part, "The several states who formed that instrument of [the Constitution], being sovereign and independent, have the unquestionable right to judge of its infraction; and that a nullification, by those [states], of all unauthorized acts...is the rightful remedy."
6. The ideas of the Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions became a precursor to John C. Calhoun's arguments about the power of states to nullify federal laws.
7. However, during the nullification controversy of the 1830's, Madison rejected the legitimacy of nullification, and argued that it was not part of the Virginia position in 1798.

-Political statements drafted in 1798 and 1799, in which the Kentucky and Virginia legislatures took the position that the federal Alien and Sedition Acts were unconstitutional. The Resolutions argued that the states had the right and the duty to declare unconstitutional any acts of Congress that were not authorized by the Constitution. In doing so, they argued for states' rights and strict constructionism of the Constitution
1. General features
a. Central arenas
i. Family
ii. Church
b. Chief functions
. Helped survive servitude without losing self-esteem
i. Transmission of collective values across generations
c. Sources
. African heritage
i. American values and experiences
2. Slave family
. In the West Indies, the demographic foundation made family structure impossible
a. In America, the slave population grew from inside the US, rather than from a constant slew of importation
0. Thus, there was an even male-female ratio
b. Slave marriage was not recognized by law
0. Slave masters had to approve of a couple first
1. "jumping the broomstick" = slave marriage (a part of the ceremony)
2. Marriages in constant danger of being broken up by sale
1. Children, too, were sometimes separated from their parents
c. Named children after relatives to maintain a sense of ancestry
d. Did not marry first cousins, unlike whites
e. Two-parent families
f. Gender role
0. "Equality of powerlessness"
1. Assertion of gender roles where possible
3. Slave religion
. Many became Baptist or Methodist during the Great Awakening
a. Every plantation had its own black preacher
0. Most of time, little to no education but a good speaking ability and knowledge of the Bible
1. Respected member of the community
b. Urban free blacks sometimes had their own churches with slaves sometimes attended
c. Slaveowners used Christianity as a way of controlling slaves
0. Owners brought their slaves to services that preached the importance of obedience to one's master and the evil of theft
d. Fusion of African and Christian traditions
e. Slaves' version of Christianity
0. Solace amid bondage
1. Hope for liberation
2. Associated themselves with various biblical heroes
1. Moses and the enslaved Jews of Egypt from Exodus
2. Also, Jonah, who escaped the belly of whale
3. Daniel, who escaped a lion's den
4. David, who slayed the giant named Goliath
4. Desire for freedom and justice
. As expressed in folk tales, spirituals
0. Stories with sympathy for the weak (Brer Rabbit)
a. Reflection of American language of freedom
0. This language would be seen in the social political movement during the Reconstruction Era
a. Name refers to Thomas Moore's sixteenth century novel Utopia; also an impossibly and impractically perfect society
b. A huge number of "Utopian" communities arose in the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries. These varies greatly in structure: government, religion, gender relations. Communities required their members to give up traditional marriages, or traditional property ownership (rarely were they expected to give up both).
1. Shakers: Founded by Mother Ann Lee. Men and women spiritually equal, but had different jobs in society. Congregants were forbidden to procreate, so the population grew by attracting converts and adopting orphans. Sold seeds and furniture.
2. Oneida: Founded by John Humphrey Noyes, claimed followers had achieved "purity of heart." "in contrast to Shaker celibacy, he taught that all members of his community formed a single "holy family" of equals. His community became notorious for what Noyes called 'complex marriage,' whereby any man could propose sexual relations to any woman, who had the right to accept or reject his invitation, which would then be registered in a public record book." Exclusivity was considered dangerous. Dictatorial system, showed early eugenics-like practices.
3. Brook Farm: Founded by new England transcendentalists. Communal living and working arrangements, plus private property. This settlement attracted mainly intellectuals, who resented having to do farm labor. The system fell apart after a few years.
4. Owenites: Founded by Robert Owen. Communitarian. Thought human character was determined by environment. Pro- women's rights. Didn't last long because the residents argued about everything. Ideologically influential.
Temperance
a. symptom of "perfectionism," the social view which saw everyone as capable of indefinite improvement. Drinkers were seen to be enslaved by alcohol, and perfectionism stretched this view to cover even the most light of drinkers. Founded in 1826 (mostly in the middle-class North), and by 1840 total alcohol consumption in the US had fallen by about 50%.
b. Temperance generated hostility among casual drinkers and Catholics (who saw the drive to abolish sin as impossible). Taverns remained popular.
c. Reformers had to balance "their desire to create moral order and their quest to enhance personal freedom."
The 1830s saw the rise of militant abolitionism. Focused on the values in the Declaration of Independence, and employed strong rhetoric against the South and slaveowners to argue for complete equality of blacks and whites.
a. William Lloyd Garrison published a weekly abolitionist journal, which proved quite inflammatory, as did a lot of abolitionist publications of the time.
b. Southerners feared that abolitionists would attempt to start slave insurrections, but most abolitionists rejected such violence. They tried to base their arguments in morals instead. They emphasized the idea of freedom as the ownership of oneself and ability to profit from one's labor. Many saw that abolition would cause sweeping changes across the North as well as the South. They linked it to the revolutionary tradition of the Declaration, and related American values.
c. Black abolitionists were very influential during this time. Many released slave narratives and other abolitionist literature, filled with pathos. They argued from an intellectual perspective as well. Some attacked what they saw as America's hypocritical claim to be a "land of the free."
d. Abolition was not free from racism and prejudice. Abolitionists faced mobs and lynchings. Abolitionist literature was burned. However, the cause bloomed in adversity. Many abolitionists still considered balcks inferior, even if they were entitled to basic rights. However, the extent to which people were able to rise above these ideas was striking. Also, abolitionist ideas became more universal, appealing to northerners who -- while they might not have an interest in slavery-- believed that the South was encroaching on their freedoms and national ideals.
1. Immediate causes
a. Polk wanted to buy CA but Mexico would not budge
b. Texas-Mexico border dispute
1. American soldiers go into disputed area and war erupts
2. Polk declares war, claiming Mexicans had "shed blood on American soil"
2. Response among Americans
. Broad support
i. Spirit of Manifest Destiny
ii. America as bearer of liberty
a. Themes of dissent (among small minority in North)
. War will promote expansion of slavery
i. War undermines American democratic values (acting like Europe by attacking small countries)
ii. Thoreau civilly disobeys, refusing to pay taxes for the Mexican war, and is thrown in prison
iii. Lincoln's opposition to president's war-making power
3. Course of war
. California
0. American rebels' declaration of independence from Mexico (June 1846)
1. Announcement of Bear Flag Republic under John C. Frémont
2. Arrival of U.S. Navy, superseding Bear Flag Republic
a. Santa Fe
0. Occupation by U.S. troops under Stephen W. Kearney
1. Subsequent suppression by Kearney of Mexican resistance in southern California
b. Mexico (where most of fighting took place)
0. Defeat of Santa Anna by Zachary Taylor at Battle of Buena Vista (Feb. 1847)
1. Occupation of Mexico City by Winfield Scott
4. Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo (Feb. 1848)
. Confirmation of U.S. annexation of Texas
a. Ceding to the United States of California and present-day New Mexico, Arizona, Nevada, and Utah
b. Payment by the United States to Mexico of $15 million
5. Mexico's lasting resentment over war
6. "Race" and legacy of U.S. victory
. Affirmation of Manifest Destiny assumptions
0. "Anglo-Saxon race" as innately superior
1. Association of Anglo-Saxon Protestants with civilization, progress, liberty
a. Social inequalities of newly acquired territories
0. Introduction of slavery
1. Ethnic discrimination
When Congress voted to annex Texas, relations between the US and Mexico went bad; Texas claimed the Rio Grande as its border, but Mexico wanted it to be the Nueces River; Mexican soldiers fired on American troops patrolling the Rio Grande and Congress declared war on Mexico (April 27, 1846)
1. Backdrop
a. Sectional clash over slavery question
b. 1848: revolution and reaction across Europe
2. Proposals and debates
. Clay plan
1. CA enters US as a free state
2. Slave trade (not slavery) would be abolished in nation's capital
3. New law says southerns can reclaim runaway slaves
4. Status of slavery in territory acquired from Mexico is to be decided by white denizens of the area
a. Senate debate
i. Daniel Webster; pro-compromise for the sake of peace
ii. John C. Calhoun; uncompromising defense of slavery
iii. William Seward; uncompromising assault on slavery
3. Outcome
. Death of President Taylor
a. President Millard Fillmore's support for Clay plan
b. Fillmore breaks stalemate in Congress and helps get the Compromise of 1850 passed

1850: America gained a lot of territory after winning the war against Mexico and many disagreed about what to do with it. Northerners wanted the territory closed to slavery and Southerners wanted it open to slavery. In 1850 the people of California applied to Congress to be admitted as a free state, but a southern senator named Jefferson Davis warned that if this happened it would "permanently destroy the balance of power". In order to save the Union they had to compromise by allowing California to enter the Union as a Free State, which pleased the North, and New Mexico and Utah entered the Union as Territories open to slavery which pleased the South. Slave trading was also ended in the capital Washington D.C. and the Fugitive slave law would requiring all people, both Northerners and southerners, to be responsible for returning escaped slaves to their owners.
1. Underlying economic and political trends
a. Maturation of market revolution across North
i. Economic growth of 1840s and 1850s
ii. Integration of Northwest and Northeast within a dynamic economy
1. Expanded railroad network
2. Mass immigration from Europe
3. Western agriculture
4. Industrial production
5. Spread and growth of cities
6. South lagged behind
b. Rise and fall of Know-Nothing Party
. Nativist hostility to immigrants, Catholics
i. Only native American should hold office
ii. Links between anti-Catholic and antislavery sentiment (against sale of liquor, too)
iii. Nonetheless, European immigrants who were white could vote as soon as they landed, while people of other skin colors who had been there all their lives could not.
2. Republican party appeal
. Free labor ideal
0. Opposition to expansion of slavery; "freedom national"
1. Freedom national = ending gov't support of slavery
2. Slavery needed to stay out of the West so free labor could flourish
1. Juxtaposition of "free labor North" and "slave South"
0. it was difficult to rise up in slave South
1. it was also difficult for immigrants like the Irish to rise up as well, but Republicans attributed this to their "dependent" nature (i.e. their lack of Protestant religulion)
2. Republicans were not abolitionists - they wanted to prevent the expansion, not get rid of slavery where it already was
0. Nonetheless, a fierce dichotomy was still created between the free North and slave South that would eventually need to be reconciled
a. Further factors behind rise of Republican party
0. "Bleeding Kansas"
0. Pro-slavery Missourians go to Kansas to cast fake ballots
1. President Pierce okay'd the resultant pro-slavery legislature
2. Free state settlers of Kansas made their own gov't and a civil war ensued (200 died)
3. Disproved Douglas' policy of leaving the local authorities to decide on slavery - it helped Republicans
1. Preston Brooks (pro-slavery) beats Charles Sumner (antislavery) unconscious [how delightful!]
3. Election of 1856
. Republicans choose John C. Frémont
1. More opposition against expansion of slavery
a. Victory of Democrat James Buchanan
1. Frémont carried much of North, but Buchanan carried all of South and key states in North
b. Emergence of Republicans as dominant in North, Democrats as dominant in South
1. Dred Scott came to the free state of Illinois with his owner. When he returned to the slave state of Missouri, he sued for his freedom, claiming that being in a free state had made him free.
2. Key elements (Taney opinion)
a. African-Americans devoid of citizenship rights
b. Congress powerless to restrict slavery in territories
3. Aftermath
. Dred Scott was emancipated right away by a new master
a. Republicans, instead of giving up on battle against slavery expansion, believe that the Supreme Court is corrupted by Slave Power
b. Lecompton Constitution controversy
1. Buchanan tries to make Kansas a slave state
2. Douglas surprisingly teams up with Republicans in anger of the violation of popular sovereignty
3. Made Dems distrust Buchanan
ii. Makes Missouri-Compromise unconstitutional

-A slave and his wife, Dred and Harriet Scott married in Wisconsin. When his master died they sued the Missouri courts for their liberty. They said that residence in Illinois (where slavery was banned by Northwestern Ordinance) and in the Wisconsin (slavery was outlawed by Missouri Compromise) made them free. This case ultimately moved up to the Supreme Court. They decided: Whether blacks were free or slave they were not citizens, meaning they could not sue in federal court. Taney said they were "an inferior order". They also said since they returned to Missouri the Illinois laws didn't apply to them and the Missouri compromise was unconstitutional making them not free. This voided the Missouri compromise again.
1. Democratic party split
a. Stephen A. Douglas as nominee for northern wing
1. For popular sovereignty, which was at odds with the lower south, which wanted Kansas to be a slave state
b. John C. Breckinridge as nominee for southern wing
1. Wanted slavery protected in western territories
2. Republican nomination of Lincoln
i. Know-Nothing's eschew Seward because of his decision as Governor of NY to channel funds to Catholic schools
ii. Republicans liked Lincoln's devotion to maintaining the Union
iii. Appealed to immigrants, having not been associated with the Know-Nothings
iv. Viewed the geographical dichotomy as more of a moral issue, which appealed to Republican abolitionists
v. He came from Illinois, which meant he could carry some of the swing states
vi. Against Dred Scott verdict, slavery expansion, more active gov't (appealed to North)
3. Newly formed Constitutional Union party nomination of John Bell
0. Constitutional literalists
1. Primacy of the preservation of the Union
4. Lincoln victory, based on sweep of northern states

-The United States presidential election of 1860 set the stage for the American Civil War. The nation had been divided throughout most of the 1850s on questions of states' rights and slavery in the territories. In 1860, this issue finally came to a head, fracturing the formerly dominant Democratic Party into Southern and Northern factions and bringing Abraham Lincoln and the Republican Party to power without the support of a single Southern state. Hardly more than a month following Lincoln's victory came declarations of secession by South Carolina and other states, which were rejected as illegal by outgoing President James Buchanan and President-elect Lincoln
1. Reawakening of slavery controversy
a. Things stop being about Whigs and Democratics
b. The great North-South divide is "'brought to a head'"
2. Van Buren and his running mate, JQA's son - Charles Francis Adams - create the Free Soil Party
. They get 14% of Northern vote - shows that antislavery isn't limited to abolitionists anymore
3. Democratics nominate Lewis Cass of Michigan
. Believes slavery question should be left to the settlers ("popular sovereignty")
4. Whig Zachary Taylor wins

During the Mexican War, President Polk hoped to acquire more territory from Mexico. He asked Congress for $2 million in order to negotiate a peace in order to obtain California; at this time, Representative David Wilmot proposed adding an amendment to this bill in which he proposed free soil in 1847. In this proposal, Wilmot suggests adding an amendment that makes slavery barred in any territory acquired from Mexico. Although this proviso managed to pass the House twice, it did not pass the Senate. This was a speech in congress Wilmot gives; in it, he states the main problem with slavery is not whether or not it will exist where it already does but if it will be carried to new places. Free soil is a middle ground between abolitionists and anti-abolitionists; Wilmot is not pro-abolition but is just pro-containment of slavery. This relates to the rise of the Civil War because had more people gone behind the Free Soil movement, the slavery conflict (which is one of the causes of the War) could have potentially been solved.