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APUSH Foner Chapters 7-13
Terms in this set (45)
Articles of Confederation
• 1777, Congress proposed a plan for creating a confederation
• The plan was called the Articles of Confederation
• It was approved by all the states in 1781
• Each state was given one vote in Congress
• Major decisions had to be approved by 9 of 13 states, (Any amendment of the article required the approval of all 13 states).
• Under the Articles, Congress could not regulate trade or charge taxes
• Congress was often forced to beg for money.
• The requests were usually ignored by the individual states.
-Designed to limit power in the government, and, in turn, protect the liberties of the people.
-The Constitutional Convention was held in 1787 by delegates to revise the Articles of Confederation, from which, the new U.S. Constitution was developed.
The Northwest Ordinance
1. This was enacted in 1787.
2. The Northwest territory divides into 3-5 territories, all in need of an implementation of a methodical process in order to become a statehood.
3. Unorganized areas were overseen by congress and once the population reached 5000, it was be distinguished as a "territory." When the population reached 6000 it would be designated as a "state."
4. It considered one of the most significant achievements of the Articles of Confederation.
5. It established a system for setting up governments in the western territories so they could eventually join the Union in equality with the original 13 states.
1. Facing seizure of their land, debt-ridden farmers closed the courts.
a). Invoked liberty trees and liberty poles.
2. Shay's Rebellion demonstrated the need for a more central government to ensure private liberty.
3. "Shay's rebellion was greatly strengthened by the Nationalist's cause" (Foner 245).
5. "the participants in Shay's Rebellion believed they were acting in the spirit of the Revolution" (Foner 243).
5. Jefferson was not alarmed by this Rebellion
6. A concern that "freedom of the people" had gotten out of hand arose. "Private liberty, especially the secure enjoyment of property rights, could be endangered by public liberty-unchecked power in the hands of the people."
Occurred in the winter of 1786-7 under the Articles of Confederation. Poor, indebted landowners in Massachusetts blocked access to courts and prevented the government from arresting or repossessing the property of those in debt. The federal government was too weak to help Boston remove the rebels, a sign that the Articles of Confederation weren't working effectively.
The Constitutional Convention
1. 55 men gathered at the Constitutional Convention. Among them were those such as George Washington, Benjamin Franklin, Alexander Hamilton, and George Mason. (Few men of ordinary means attended)
2. As current diplomats serving in Europe, Thomas Jefferson and John Adams did not take part.
3. Every state except Rhode Island, which had gone furthest in developing its own debtor relief and trade policies, decided to send delegates to the Philadelphia convention.
4. They assembled on May 1787, and decided to scrap the Articles of Confederation and draft a new constitution entirely for the United States.
The Philadelphia Convention (now also known as the Constitutional Convention, the Federal Convention, or the "Grand Convention at Philadelphia") took place from May 25 to September 17, 1787, in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, to address problems in governing the United States of America, which had been operating under the Articles of Confederation following independence from Great Britain. Although the Convention was purportedly intended only to revise the Articles of Confederation, the intention of many of its proponents, chief among them James Madison and Alexander Hamilton, was from the outset to create a new government rather than "fix" the existing one. The delegates elected George Washington to preside over the convention.
1. Nine of the thirteen states had to ratify the document.
2. The Federalist was published to generate support for ratification.
3. Alexander Hamilton argued that government was an expression of freedom, not the enemy. (Hamilton and Madison were both supporters of government, they were both Federalists.)
4. Madison emphasized that the Constitution was designed to protect that than inhibit the natural rights of men. He also advocated that the Constitution was structured to prevent abuses of authority.
A collection of essays written anonymously by Alexander Hamilton, James Madison, and John Jay and originally published between 1787 and 1788. IT was written support of the ratification of the Constitution. The essays defended the principle of supreme national authority, but at the same time sought to reassure doubters that the people and the states had little reason to fear usurpations and tyranny by the new government.
The Bill of Rights
1. Madison initially believed a Bill of Rights was pointless.
2. Madison introduced a Bill of Rights to the first Congress.
3. They defined "unalienable rights" of the Declaration of Independence.
4. Some amendments reflected English roots, while others were uniquely American.
5. Among the most important rights were freedom of speech and the press--vital building blocks of a democratic public sphere.
-Part of the Glorious revolution; monarch may not make or suspend laws, monarch may not levy taxes, monarch may not maintain an army without the consent of Parliament, the monarch may not interfere with the Parliamentary elections and debates, Parliament must meet frequently (remember Charles I no Parliament meetings for 11 years), monarch must be Anglican, and the people are guaranteed basic civil liberties (right to petition against the government, right to an impartial, speedy jury trial, protection against excessive bails and fines, protection against cruel and unusual punishments; served as a model for American Bill of Rights
A: Hamilton's Program:
1. As secretary of the Treasury, Alexander Hamilton's long range goal was to make the United States a major commercial and military power.
2. His program had five parts:
a. Create credit-worthiness
b. Create a new national debt.
c. Create a Bank of the United States
d. Tax producers of Whiskey
e. Impose tariffs and government subsidies.
B. The Emergence of Opposition
1. Opposition to Hamilton's plan was voiced by James Madison and Thomas Jefferson.
2. Hamilton's plan depended on a close relationship with Britain.
3. Opponents believed the future lay westward, not with Britain.
4. At first, opposition to Hamilton's program arose almost entirely from the South.
5. Both Hamilton and his opponents used the Constitution as justification for their cause.
6. The South accepted Hamilton's plan after being promised that the national capitol would move to the South.
-Hamilton emerged as a major political figure during the debate over the Constitution, as the outspoken leader of the Federalists and one of the authors of the Federalist Papers. Later, as secretary of treasury under Washington, Alexander Hamilton spearheaded the government's Federalist initiatives, most notably through the creation of the Bank of the United States., 1789-1795; First Secretary of the Treasury. He advocated creation of a national bank, assumption of state debts by the federal government, and a tariff system to pay off the national debt.
The Whiskey Rebellion
1. Nearly twenty years after the revolutionary war began, the United States government faced a small-scale revolution by some of its own citizens. As in the previous war, taxes were a central issue. And Alexander Hamilton understood that putting down this rebellion was critical to the life of the nation.
2. In order to create a self-supporting and effective government, Treasury Secretary Hamilton knew he needed to find a steady source of revenue. He proposed an exercise of tax on whiskey produced in the United States, and Congress instituted the levy in 1791. Generally, the citizens of that time felt negatively toward the idea of taxation. The farmers of western Pennsylvania, many of whom distilled whiskey and profited from its sale, proved openly hostile to the idea.
3. In July of 1794, a force of disaffected whiskey rebels attacked and destroyed the home of a tax inspector. The rebellion grew in numbers, if no tin actions, and threatened to spread to other states. Hamilton knew that the presence of a large and potentially hostile force in Pennsylvania could not be tolerated. if the government were to survive, it would have to show itself capable of maintaining order, and keeping control.
4. Hamilton advocated the use of military force; President George Washington instead put state militias on the ready and sent in negotiators. When verbal communication did not prove to be effectual, Washington acquiesced to Hamilton's view. A force of 13,000 militia troops, led by Hamilton and the Virginia governor, Henry Lee, marched into western Pennsylvania.
5. By the time the federal force arrived, the rebellion had collapsed and most of the rebels had fled. Two men were convicted of treason and later pardoned by Washington. Alexander Hamilton was pleased with this result. The fledgling federal government had proven it could keep its order--a necessity if the U.S. was to avoid instability. But many, in particular Thomas Jefferson, thought that this resort to military force was a dangerous error. It convinced them that Hamilton was a man prone to act upon his passion, and revealed that this tendency could lead to perilous situations.
-In 1791, the Whiskey Rebellion was the rebellion that many people took part in to refuse to give the government taxes for Whiskey. For many western farmers, it was much too expensive to have a tax on Whiskey. Eventually, Washington led 13,000 militia to silence the rebels. The Whiskey Rebellion was extremely significant, because it was one of the first major oppositions to the U.S. government under the constitution. Additionally, Washington and Hamilton responded rather harshly, silencing people rebelling against governmental politics, something against the Declaration of Independence.
The Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions
1. These resolutions were passed by the legislatures of Kentucky and Virginia in response to the Alien and Sedition Acts of 1798.
2. Respectively authored by Thomas Jefferson and James Madison.
3. The resolutions argued that the federal government had no authority to exercise power not specifically delegated to it in the Constitution.
4. The Virginia Resolution (Madison), said that by enacting the Alien and Sedation Acts, Congress was exercising, "a power not delegated by the Constitution, but on the contrary, expressly and positively forbidden by one of the amendments thereto; a power, which more than any other, ought to produce universal alarm, because it is levelled against that right of freely examining public characters and measure, and of free communication among the people thereon, which has ever been justly deemed, the only effectual guardian of every other right." From this statement, Madison hoped that other states would register their opposition to the Alien and Sedition Acts as beyond the powers given to Congress.
5. The Kentucky Resolutions (Jefferson), took one step further than Madison's Virginia Resolution in asserting that states had the power to nullify unconstitutional federal laws.
-The Kentucky Resolution declared in part, "The several states who formed that instrument of [the Constitution], being sovereign and independent, have the unquestionable right to judge of its infraction; and that a nullification, by those [states], of all unauthorized acts...is the rightful remedy."
6. The ideas of the Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions became a precursor to John C. Calhoun's arguments about the power of states to nullify federal laws.
7. However, during the nullification controversy of the 1830's, Madison rejected the legitimacy of nullification, and argued that it was not part of the Virginia position in 1798.
-Political statements drafted in 1798 and 1799, in which the Kentucky and Virginia legislatures took the position that the federal Alien and Sedition Acts were unconstitutional. The Resolutions argued that the states had the right and the duty to declare unconstitutional any acts of Congress that were not authorized by the Constitution. In doing so, they argued for states' rights and strict constructionism of the Constitution
The Election of 1800
The Republicans were much more active in promotion of their campaign. Jefferson got 73 electoral votes to Adams' 65, taking the Southern states and New York while Adams captured the more north-eastern states. Jefferson and his running mate Aaron Burr ended up tied at 73 votes because a Republican electoral voter defied his party and didn't cast away one of his two votes for president. The election was brought to the House of Representatives where there was still no majority of votes. Hamilton convinced the House into a majority in Jefferson's favor by declaring him to be the better candidate, even though Hamilton disagreed with both Jefferson's and Burr's policy. Hamilton believed Jefferson was the lesser of two evils, as Burr, to Hamilton was too power-hungry. After the incident, congress passed the 12th Amendment with makes electors cast separate votes for President and VP. Burr was understandably very angry with Hamilton and eventually killed him in a duel four years later. The election showed that the people had a right to actively express their political opinions, whether in favor or against the government. It set the precedent of passing presidential power from party to party peacefully. End story: Jefferson won.
The Haitian Revolution
Educated slave Toussaint L'Ouverture in French colony Saint Domingue gathers an army that rebels against and defeats British forces attempting to seize the colony for themselves. The rebellion caused the independence of Haiti in 1804. Inspired blacks in America. Adams supported it when president while Jefferson wanted to destroy Haiti.
VA, 1800 - Gabriel and his two brothers conspired to march into Richmond, kill white inhabitants, and hold whites and Governor Monroe hostage until slavery was abolished. Storm comes on the night of rebellion and washes out the roads to the city. Leaders are captured and they, as well as many of their followers, are hanged. Slave artisans such as Gabriel played an important role in the rebellion due to their autonomous status. Used rhetoric of the American Revolution ("Death or Liberty"). The rebellion established in the public consciousness that they desired freedom as much as any other man or woman. Turning point when slaves sought freedom as a right. Legislature of VA tightened its regulations on the black population - any slave freed after 1806 had to either leave VA or return to slavery.
Major Events of the Jeffersonian Administration
A. Judicial Review: 1. John Marshall's Supreme Court established the court's power to review laws of Congress and the states. --2. Marbury vs. Madison--3. Judicial Review
B. The Louisiana Purchase
1. To purchase Louisiana Jefferson had to abandon his conviction that the federal government was limited to powers specifically mentioned in the Constitution.
2. Jefferson justified his overreach of the Constitution by securing economic stability for his virtuous agrarian farmers.
C. Lewis and Clark
1. Lewis and Clark's object was both scientific and commercial.
2. Their journey from 1804 to 1806 brought invaluable information and paved the way for a transcontinental country.
D. Incorporating Louisiana
1. New Orleans
2. Louisiana's slaves had enjoyed far more freedom under the rule of tyrannical Spain than as a part of the liberty loving United States.
E. Foreign Entanglements
1. European wars directly influenced livelihood of American farmers, merchants, and artisans.
2. Jefferson hoped to avoid foreign entanglements.
3. Barbary Pirates.
F. The Embargo
1. War between France and Great Britain hurt American trade.
3. Embargo Act resulted in crippled U.S. economy
4. Replaced with Non-Intercourse Act
G. Madison and Pressure for War:
1. Macon's Bill No.2 allowed trade to resume
2. War Hawks called for war against Britain.
3. Wished to annex Canada
Causes and Consequences of the War of 1812
1. The period of time between 1800, and 1812 was an "age of prophecy" among the Indians. Tecumseh and Tenskwatawa tried to unite against the white man. (Indian Conflicts and Britain's rule)
-Interception of American ships
-International political and economic conflicts
2. Madison asked for war for the sake of national pride.
3. The government found it difficult to finance the war.
4. Americans enjoyed few military successes
5. Peace came with a Treaty of Ghent in December 1814.
6. The war confirmed the ability of a republican government to conduct a war without surrendering its institutions.
7. The war also strengthened the growing sense of nationalism in Canada.
-Had significant political consequences
8. A casualty of the war was the Death of the Federalist Party: Hartford Convention.
9. Republicans now dominant party
10. Rise of W. hero politicians.
-Andrew Jackson and William Henry Harrison
11. Future Splits (Republican party diversifies):
-Abolitionism vs. Slavery
-American System vs. Jackson
The Cotton Kingdom
The Cotton Kingdom arose as a result of the invention of the Cotton Gin by Eli Whitney. Even though many people believed that slavery would die out as a result of tobacco crops exhausting the soil, a new product (as well as newly opened western lands) allowed for a vast expansion of slavery that restarted a continental slave trade and grew tremendously in the following years. Slaves were often made to march, chained to each other, hundreds of miles south to new plantations, as families were broken up for profit; the cotton output of the USA grew from 5 million lbs to 170 million lbs in 27 years.
The Growth of Cities and Factories
Railroads allowed for the concentration of resources on the shores of rivers that eventually formed cities such as Cincinnati, St. Louis, and Chicago. All of these cities handled the trade of goods from one region to another using river transport and railroads; a byproduct of this was the rise of factories to increase efficiency. Where before artisans worked at home and at their own pace, they were now working in factories under the eyes of a boss in a labor system divided into steps requiring less expertise and more raw labor. One of the first types of factories to appear was the textile factory, which often utilized water to provide power for machinery. While the industrial revolution was at first confined to New England, it slowly spread. Wage labor became the norm and people began arranging their lives according to the clock and work day. Female and child labor became normal and the supervision of worker's private lives (they often resided near the factories in compounds) was very oppressive.
Immigration to Nativism
Immigration to the USA increased as a result in the increased demand for labor that the industrial revolution prompted. Additionally, the invention of the ocean-worthy steamship made transatlantic trips cheap and possible. As such, a large number of natives from Ireland and German came to the USA; many Irish were escaping a famine that lasted from 1845-1851. Much of these two cultures, especially the German culture, was retained in newly created neighborhoods that housed only immigrants of one nationality. All of this was countered by the rise of Nativism, or hostility towards newcomers. A lot of native-born Americans were alarmed at the flood of (especially Irish) immigrants in the 1840s, attributing crime, corruption, and drunkenness to them. Perhaps more fairly, they blamed them for taking away jobs from natural born American citizens. This resulted in numerous anti-immigrant riots and a generally hostile attitude.
The Second Great Awakening
The Second Great Awakening occurred after religious leaders realized how low attendance numbers were in their churches, resulting in radical action taken on their part to get converts. The number of ministers and preachers increased drastically during this period, as can be expected; unlike the previous great awakening, this one emphasized the right of private judgement in spiritual matters and the possibility of universal salvation through good faith and morals. Interestingly, the evangelical preachers of the time were indeed against a market society, calling selfishness an extreme form of individualism that was "the law of Satan's empire." But additionally, the ministers promoted industry, sobriety, and self-discipline, all aspects of a productive market society.
The Cult of Domesticity
As women found work outside of the home and the economic value of work produced in the home decreased, the idea of republican motherhood slowly evolved into a "cult of domesticity," the cultivation of virtue that not only was defined as a key feature of republican ideals, but also would come to be defined in terms of woman's tendencies such as beauty, frailty, and dependence on men. Women were at this time able to exercise a lot of power over family affairs and cultivate good morals in their children, acting in "the womanly way," nurturing, selfless, and ruled by emotion, remaining closely bound to the private spheres.
The Information Revolution
An expansion of the public sphere and "explosion" in printing. Mass publications became more and more common, with anew style of sensationalist journalism. Inexpensive postal services allowed news to travel beyond the local area. "Alternative" newspapers also appeared during this time.
The Missouri Compromise
Controversy arose as Missouri prepared to become part of the US, because it had a large slave population. In 1820, Senator Jesse Thomas proposed a compromise. Missouri would draft a constitution without a prohibition on the further introduction of slaves to the state, Maine (originally part of MA) would become a state and would prohibit slavery, and all remaining territory from the Louisiana Purchase north of 36º 30' latitude would also prohibit slavery in the future. Missouri's proposed constitution protected slavery, and prevented free blacks from entering the state. This prompted Henry Clay to create the Second Missouri Compromise, in which Congress would accept this constitution, but Missouri could not deprive citizens of other states of their Constitutional rights. Missouri usually ignored that latter part.
The Monroe Doctrine
Based on three principles: The US would oppose any further European efforts at colonization in the Americas; the US would not get involved in wars in Europe; a warning to the European powers not to get involved in the newly formed states of Latin America. Seen as the foundation of American diplomacy for a long time. Quincy Adams and others saw it as the American bid for economic power on a global scale.
The Elections of 1824 and 1828
1824: Jackson had a minimal political election platform. Ran on his reputation as a war hero. No candidate (Jackson, Clay, Crawford, or Quincy Adams) got a majority of votes in the election. In the end, Clay endorsed Adams, which won him the election. Clay became Secretary of State, leading to accusations of a "corrupt bargain" between the two. Jackson's and Crawford's supporters split from the Republicans to form the Democratic party.
1828: By this time the Democratic party was well-established. Adams did little to promote his own reelection. Jackson, on the other hand, ran on clever phrases and popularity. He carried the South and West, winning the election.
The Nullification Crisis
Nullification: the repeal of the tariff of 1828, which raised taxes on imported manufactured goods made of wool, as well as iron. Southerners thought this made the prices it paid for these materials too high. Created yet another issue separating the North and South.
a. The tariff was renewed in 1832, and South Carolina rejected it. In response, Jackson got Congress to enact a Force Bill, allowing him in use the army and navy to collect dues if necessary.
b. To avoid further conflict, Clay and Calhoun released a new tariff in 1833, further reducing the cost of the tariff. South Carolina then rescinded the nullification. Calhoun abandoned the Democrats for the Whigs.
The Indian Removal Act of 1830 - provided funds for the uprooting of 5 Indian tribes, living mostly in the South, despite the tribes' attempts to assimilate. Cherokee leaders went to court, but their appeals were turned down.
1. Male slaveholders feel the obligation to provide protection, guidance, and general care to their various inferiors (women, children, and slaves)
a.International slave trade ends in 1808, which makes slaves an economic commodity to be protected
b.Slaves and their owners become less culturally separate
3.Slaveowners think of themselves as kind and benevolent masters even while they buy and sell their slaves
1.Slavery of blacks allows for freedom and equality of whites
a.Slaves take menial labor that otherwise would have been taken by whites
2.The belief that blacks are inherently inferior
3.Biblical passages state that slaves should obey their masters
4.Ancient empires like Greece and Roman and 17th and 18th century European empires were based in slave labor
5.Slavery is required to cultivate the arts and sciences
a.universal liberty to be an exception from the natural condition of mankind, a brief experiment
b.with a view to the whole of human history, slavery was surely the most natural means of supporting a civilized society
c.a "community of interests" exists between slaves and their owners and that it was a concept unknown to the free states
d.Black slaves are the happiest and in some ways the freest people in the world because they have no economic interests to worry about
2.Inconsistency of his views
Believed all free laborers should be made slaves for their own benefit
a.Also said that slavery should only be for blacks
i.For blacks, liberty would be "a curse"
Free Blacks in the South
1..5 million free blacks in US right before Civil War (mostly in the South)
2. Blurry line between slavery and freedom
a. Could marry and own property, but...
b. Broad denial of legal rights
i. Could not vote
ii. Could not own dogs, liquor, or firearms
iii. Could not strike a white person, even if it was in self-defense
iv. Could not testify in court or serve on juries
v. Had to carry a certificate of freedom with them at all times
c. Those who needed public aid were made to work alongside slaves
3. Growing reputation as threat to slave system
. By 1850's, most of the South would not allow free blacks to enter
a. Some even moved to expel them completely, giving them the choice of either emigrating or returning to slavery
4. Regional variations
. Lower South
0. Small numbers
1. Concentration in cities
2. Free black elite
a. Upper South
0. Concentration in farmlands
1. Ties to slave community
1. General features
a. Central arenas
b. Chief functions
. Helped survive servitude without losing self-esteem
i. Transmission of collective values across generations
. African heritage
i. American values and experiences
2. Slave family
. In the West Indies, the demographic foundation made family structure impossible
a. In America, the slave population grew from inside the US, rather than from a constant slew of importation
0. Thus, there was an even male-female ratio
b. Slave marriage was not recognized by law
0. Slave masters had to approve of a couple first
1. "jumping the broomstick" = slave marriage (a part of the ceremony)
2. Marriages in constant danger of being broken up by sale
1. Children, too, were sometimes separated from their parents
c. Named children after relatives to maintain a sense of ancestry
d. Did not marry first cousins, unlike whites
e. Two-parent families
f. Gender role
0. "Equality of powerlessness"
1. Assertion of gender roles where possible
3. Slave religion
. Many became Baptist or Methodist during the Great Awakening
a. Every plantation had its own black preacher
0. Most of time, little to no education but a good speaking ability and knowledge of the Bible
1. Respected member of the community
b. Urban free blacks sometimes had their own churches with slaves sometimes attended
c. Slaveowners used Christianity as a way of controlling slaves
0. Owners brought their slaves to services that preached the importance of obedience to one's master and the evil of theft
d. Fusion of African and Christian traditions
e. Slaves' version of Christianity
0. Solace amid bondage
1. Hope for liberation
2. Associated themselves with various biblical heroes
1. Moses and the enslaved Jews of Egypt from Exodus
2. Also, Jonah, who escaped the belly of whale
3. Daniel, who escaped a lion's den
4. David, who slayed the giant named Goliath
4. Desire for freedom and justice
. As expressed in folk tales, spirituals
0. Stories with sympathy for the weak (Brer Rabbit)
a. Reflection of American language of freedom
0. This language would be seen in the social political movement during the Reconstruction Era
Nat Turner's Rebellion
1. Nat Turner was a slave preacher from VA
a. Believed God wanted him to head a black uprising
2. Attacked white farms on Aug 22, 1831 (was going to be July 4th but Turner was ill)
. 60 whites, mostly women and children, died (most of the men were at a religious revival in NC)
3. Was eventually put down by white militia and executed
. Showed that slaves faced an enormous disadvantage militarily against whites
4. A panic in the South ensued
. Slaves were treated much more cruelly
a. VA leaders debated whether to keep the institution
5. In the end, VA simply made slavery even stricter
. Blacks, free or slave, could not be preachers
a. Could not own firearms
b. Could not be taught to read
6. Proslavery arguments became much more prominent in the South
. dissenting opinions were suppressed (the South's "Great Reaction")
a. One of the greatest instances of suppression of free speech in American history
a. Name refers to Thomas Moore's sixteenth century novel Utopia; also an impossibly and impractically perfect society
b. A huge number of "Utopian" communities arose in the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries. These varies greatly in structure: government, religion, gender relations. Communities required their members to give up traditional marriages, or traditional property ownership (rarely were they expected to give up both).
1. Shakers: Founded by Mother Ann Lee. Men and women spiritually equal, but had different jobs in society. Congregants were forbidden to procreate, so the population grew by attracting converts and adopting orphans. Sold seeds and furniture.
2. Oneida: Founded by John Humphrey Noyes, claimed followers had achieved "purity of heart." "in contrast to Shaker celibacy, he taught that all members of his community formed a single "holy family" of equals. His community became notorious for what Noyes called 'complex marriage,' whereby any man could propose sexual relations to any woman, who had the right to accept or reject his invitation, which would then be registered in a public record book." Exclusivity was considered dangerous. Dictatorial system, showed early eugenics-like practices.
3. Brook Farm: Founded by new England transcendentalists. Communal living and working arrangements, plus private property. This settlement attracted mainly intellectuals, who resented having to do farm labor. The system fell apart after a few years.
4. Owenites: Founded by Robert Owen. Communitarian. Thought human character was determined by environment. Pro- women's rights. Didn't last long because the residents argued about everything. Ideologically influential.
a. symptom of "perfectionism," the social view which saw everyone as capable of indefinite improvement. Drinkers were seen to be enslaved by alcohol, and perfectionism stretched this view to cover even the most light of drinkers. Founded in 1826 (mostly in the middle-class North), and by 1840 total alcohol consumption in the US had fallen by about 50%.
b. Temperance generated hostility among casual drinkers and Catholics (who saw the drive to abolish sin as impossible). Taverns remained popular.
c. Reformers had to balance "their desire to create moral order and their quest to enhance personal freedom."
The Common School Movement
The first tax-supported school system, sought to discipline free individuals. Open to all (white?) students. Occurred mostly in the North, though some parents even in the North resented their lack of control of the moral education of their children.
The Colonization Movement
To create colonies (in Africa, the Caribbean, or Central America) for freed black people. Liberia was established on the coast of West Africa to serve as a colony for freed slaves. Many observers viewed colonization as impractical. Some Northerners saw colonization as a way to accomplish gradual abolition. Southerners saw as a way to get rid of already freed blacks. Some black people embraced the opportunity of more political freedom in a new colony, but most opposed the idea of colonization entirely. Many blacks took action to demonstrate their attachment to their land and nationality, often by forming new organizations. In this manner, the colonization movement spurred more active abolitionism.
The 1830s saw the rise of militant abolitionism. Focused on the values in the Declaration of Independence, and employed strong rhetoric against the South and slaveowners to argue for complete equality of blacks and whites.
a. William Lloyd Garrison published a weekly abolitionist journal, which proved quite inflammatory, as did a lot of abolitionist publications of the time.
b. Southerners feared that abolitionists would attempt to start slave insurrections, but most abolitionists rejected such violence. They tried to base their arguments in morals instead. They emphasized the idea of freedom as the ownership of oneself and ability to profit from one's labor. Many saw that abolition would cause sweeping changes across the North as well as the South. They linked it to the revolutionary tradition of the Declaration, and related American values.
c. Black abolitionists were very influential during this time. Many released slave narratives and other abolitionist literature, filled with pathos. They argued from an intellectual perspective as well. Some attacked what they saw as America's hypocritical claim to be a "land of the free."
d. Abolition was not free from racism and prejudice. Abolitionists faced mobs and lynchings. Abolitionist literature was burned. However, the cause bloomed in adversity. Many abolitionists still considered balcks inferior, even if they were entitled to basic rights. However, the extent to which people were able to rise above these ideas was striking. Also, abolitionist ideas became more universal, appealing to northerners who -- while they might not have an interest in slavery-- believed that the South was encroaching on their freedoms and national ideals.
The Origins of Feminism
Closely linked to abolitionist movements, especially female abolitionist efforts, and other reform movements. Applied abolitionist ideas to feminist philosophy. Operated mostly in the public sphere, as governments and political parties were closed. many early (female) feminists were attacked for a lack of modesty. A lot of the feminist movement at the time aimed to disprove the paradigm that relegated women to delicate, domestic tasks. Women wanted to work outside the home, and have the ability to make their own life choices, in life and in politics. Drew on similarities between slavery and traditional marriage.
1. Revival of annexation issue
i. Pres. John Tyler rekindles the issue to save his unsuccessful administration
a. Calhoun letter in support of TX annexation is leaked to press (1844)
ii. Henry Clay (whig) and Martin Van Buren (democrat) issue letters rejecting immediate annexation - fear of war with Mexico
. Letters work for Clay (he gets nomination) but for Van Buren, he lost much of his southern base that supported immediate annexation
b. Oregon; "Fifty-four forty or fight"
1. Polk's party wants to occupy all of Oregon all the way up to the latitude of 54 - 40
2. Democrat Polk vs. Whig Clay
. Southerners turn to Polk from Tennessee when Van Buren comes out against immediate annexation
a. Polk became popular because he supported annexation and was friends with Jackson
b. Polk was a cruel slave owner
c. Most did not expect Polk would even be nominated
d. Polk wins by 2%
Democrats (expansionists) want to annex Texas and choose "dark horse candidate" James K. Polk. Whigs (don't want to expand) or annex Texas. Chose Henry Clay who says he favors annexation of Texas, but not until later.
The War with Mexico
1. Immediate causes
a. Polk wanted to buy CA but Mexico would not budge
b. Texas-Mexico border dispute
1. American soldiers go into disputed area and war erupts
2. Polk declares war, claiming Mexicans had "shed blood on American soil"
2. Response among Americans
. Broad support
i. Spirit of Manifest Destiny
ii. America as bearer of liberty
a. Themes of dissent (among small minority in North)
. War will promote expansion of slavery
i. War undermines American democratic values (acting like Europe by attacking small countries)
ii. Thoreau civilly disobeys, refusing to pay taxes for the Mexican war, and is thrown in prison
iii. Lincoln's opposition to president's war-making power
3. Course of war
0. American rebels' declaration of independence from Mexico (June 1846)
1. Announcement of Bear Flag Republic under John C. Frémont
2. Arrival of U.S. Navy, superseding Bear Flag Republic
a. Santa Fe
0. Occupation by U.S. troops under Stephen W. Kearney
1. Subsequent suppression by Kearney of Mexican resistance in southern California
b. Mexico (where most of fighting took place)
0. Defeat of Santa Anna by Zachary Taylor at Battle of Buena Vista (Feb. 1847)
1. Occupation of Mexico City by Winfield Scott
4. Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo (Feb. 1848)
. Confirmation of U.S. annexation of Texas
a. Ceding to the United States of California and present-day New Mexico, Arizona, Nevada, and Utah
b. Payment by the United States to Mexico of $15 million
5. Mexico's lasting resentment over war
6. "Race" and legacy of U.S. victory
. Affirmation of Manifest Destiny assumptions
0. "Anglo-Saxon race" as innately superior
1. Association of Anglo-Saxon Protestants with civilization, progress, liberty
a. Social inequalities of newly acquired territories
0. Introduction of slavery
1. Ethnic discrimination
When Congress voted to annex Texas, relations between the US and Mexico went bad; Texas claimed the Rio Grande as its border, but Mexico wanted it to be the Nueces River; Mexican soldiers fired on American troops patrolling the Rio Grande and Congress declared war on Mexico (April 27, 1846)
The Compromise of 1850
a. Sectional clash over slavery question
b. 1848: revolution and reaction across Europe
2. Proposals and debates
. Clay plan
1. CA enters US as a free state
2. Slave trade (not slavery) would be abolished in nation's capital
3. New law says southerns can reclaim runaway slaves
4. Status of slavery in territory acquired from Mexico is to be decided by white denizens of the area
a. Senate debate
i. Daniel Webster; pro-compromise for the sake of peace
ii. John C. Calhoun; uncompromising defense of slavery
iii. William Seward; uncompromising assault on slavery
. Death of President Taylor
a. President Millard Fillmore's support for Clay plan
b. Fillmore breaks stalemate in Congress and helps get the Compromise of 1850 passed
1850: America gained a lot of territory after winning the war against Mexico and many disagreed about what to do with it. Northerners wanted the territory closed to slavery and Southerners wanted it open to slavery. In 1850 the people of California applied to Congress to be admitted as a free state, but a southern senator named Jefferson Davis warned that if this happened it would "permanently destroy the balance of power". In order to save the Union they had to compromise by allowing California to enter the Union as a Free State, which pleased the North, and New Mexico and Utah entered the Union as Territories open to slavery which pleased the South. Slave trading was also ended in the capital Washington D.C. and the Fugitive slave law would requiring all people, both Northerners and southerners, to be responsible for returning escaped slaves to their owners.
The Rise of the Republican Party
1. Underlying economic and political trends
a. Maturation of market revolution across North
i. Economic growth of 1840s and 1850s
ii. Integration of Northwest and Northeast within a dynamic economy
1. Expanded railroad network
2. Mass immigration from Europe
3. Western agriculture
4. Industrial production
5. Spread and growth of cities
6. South lagged behind
b. Rise and fall of Know-Nothing Party
. Nativist hostility to immigrants, Catholics
i. Only native American should hold office
ii. Links between anti-Catholic and antislavery sentiment (against sale of liquor, too)
iii. Nonetheless, European immigrants who were white could vote as soon as they landed, while people of other skin colors who had been there all their lives could not.
2. Republican party appeal
. Free labor ideal
0. Opposition to expansion of slavery; "freedom national"
1. Freedom national = ending gov't support of slavery
2. Slavery needed to stay out of the West so free labor could flourish
1. Juxtaposition of "free labor North" and "slave South"
0. it was difficult to rise up in slave South
1. it was also difficult for immigrants like the Irish to rise up as well, but Republicans attributed this to their "dependent" nature (i.e. their lack of Protestant religulion)
2. Republicans were not abolitionists - they wanted to prevent the expansion, not get rid of slavery where it already was
0. Nonetheless, a fierce dichotomy was still created between the free North and slave South that would eventually need to be reconciled
a. Further factors behind rise of Republican party
0. "Bleeding Kansas"
0. Pro-slavery Missourians go to Kansas to cast fake ballots
1. President Pierce okay'd the resultant pro-slavery legislature
2. Free state settlers of Kansas made their own gov't and a civil war ensued (200 died)
3. Disproved Douglas' policy of leaving the local authorities to decide on slavery - it helped Republicans
1. Preston Brooks (pro-slavery) beats Charles Sumner (antislavery) unconscious [how delightful!]
3. Election of 1856
. Republicans choose John C. Frémont
1. More opposition against expansion of slavery
a. Victory of Democrat James Buchanan
1. Frémont carried much of North, but Buchanan carried all of South and key states in North
b. Emergence of Republicans as dominant in North, Democrats as dominant in South
The Dred Scott Decision
1. Dred Scott came to the free state of Illinois with his owner. When he returned to the slave state of Missouri, he sued for his freedom, claiming that being in a free state had made him free.
2. Key elements (Taney opinion)
a. African-Americans devoid of citizenship rights
b. Congress powerless to restrict slavery in territories
. Dred Scott was emancipated right away by a new master
a. Republicans, instead of giving up on battle against slavery expansion, believe that the Supreme Court is corrupted by Slave Power
b. Lecompton Constitution controversy
1. Buchanan tries to make Kansas a slave state
2. Douglas surprisingly teams up with Republicans in anger of the violation of popular sovereignty
3. Made Dems distrust Buchanan
ii. Makes Missouri-Compromise unconstitutional
-A slave and his wife, Dred and Harriet Scott married in Wisconsin. When his master died they sued the Missouri courts for their liberty. They said that residence in Illinois (where slavery was banned by Northwestern Ordinance) and in the Wisconsin (slavery was outlawed by Missouri Compromise) made them free. This case ultimately moved up to the Supreme Court. They decided: Whether blacks were free or slave they were not citizens, meaning they could not sue in federal court. Taney said they were "an inferior order". They also said since they returned to Missouri the Illinois laws didn't apply to them and the Missouri compromise was unconstitutional making them not free. This voided the Missouri compromise again.
1. Aided fugitive slaves and antislavery publications
2. Very religious
a. Did not believe in the merciful Jesus of the New Testament
b. Believed in the vengeful god of the Old Testament
3. He and a handful of his followers killed 5 pro-slavery settlers during "Bleeding Kansas"
4. Went around the North and Canada, trying to get money and people for an anti-slavery army
5. Captured at an attack on Harpers Ferry by federal soldiers
6. On trial, he appealed to many who at first thought him a villan
7. After he was executed, he was made a martyr of sorts
8. Continuing inspiration for activists
-John Brown was a militant abolitionist that took radical extremes to make his views clear. In May of 1856, Brown led a group of his followers to Pottawatomie Creek and launched a bloody attack against pro-slavery men killing five people. This began violent retaliation against Brown and his followers. This violent attack against slavery helped give Kansas its nick name, "bleeding Kansas". Also, Harper's Ferry Raid, in 1859, he seized the U.S. arsenal at Harper's Ferry. He planned to end slavery by massacring slave owners and freeing their slaves. He was captured and executed by federal troops lead by Robert E. Lee. Called the meteor that started the civil war.
The Election of 1860
1. Democratic party split
a. Stephen A. Douglas as nominee for northern wing
1. For popular sovereignty, which was at odds with the lower south, which wanted Kansas to be a slave state
b. John C. Breckinridge as nominee for southern wing
1. Wanted slavery protected in western territories
2. Republican nomination of Lincoln
i. Know-Nothing's eschew Seward because of his decision as Governor of NY to channel funds to Catholic schools
ii. Republicans liked Lincoln's devotion to maintaining the Union
iii. Appealed to immigrants, having not been associated with the Know-Nothings
iv. Viewed the geographical dichotomy as more of a moral issue, which appealed to Republican abolitionists
v. He came from Illinois, which meant he could carry some of the swing states
vi. Against Dred Scott verdict, slavery expansion, more active gov't (appealed to North)
3. Newly formed Constitutional Union party nomination of John Bell
0. Constitutional literalists
1. Primacy of the preservation of the Union
4. Lincoln victory, based on sweep of northern states
-The United States presidential election of 1860 set the stage for the American Civil War. The nation had been divided throughout most of the 1850s on questions of states' rights and slavery in the territories. In 1860, this issue finally came to a head, fracturing the formerly dominant Democratic Party into Southern and Northern factions and bringing Abraham Lincoln and the Republican Party to power without the support of a single Southern state. Hardly more than a month following Lincoln's victory came declarations of secession by South Carolina and other states, which were rejected as illegal by outgoing President James Buchanan and President-elect Lincoln
1. South feared a new period of Republican reign
a. They feared it would eventually lead to a complete abolition, even though Lincoln didn't seem inclined to do that now
b. Did not want to become a minority
2. Secession of seven Deep South states
. Cotton Kingdom states
a. South Carolina, with biggest slave population and the arguably most radical state, secedes first and unanimously
3. Crittenden compromise effort
. Upper South and North supported the idea as a way to preserve the Union
a. Deep South: too little, too late
b. Went against Lincoln's anti-slavery-expansionism policy
c. Lincoln thought it would be a "Give the South an inch, they'll take a mile (Cuba, Mexico etc.)" situation
4. Formation of Confederate States of America
. Seven Deep South states
a. President Jefferson Davis
1. President serves a single six-year term
2. Cabinet members were part of Congress
b. Centrality of slavery and white supremacy to Confederate pronouncements
-The withdrawal of eleven Southern states from the Union in 1860 which precipitated the American Civil War
The Kansas-Nebraska Act
1. Douglas's Kansas-Nebraska bill
a. Nullification of Missouri Compromise
2. Broad antislavery reaction in North
. Appeal of the Independent Democrats declares the Douglas bill to be a despotic and "atrocious plot"
. Passage of bill
a. Collapse of Whigs
b. Fracturing of northern Democrats
c. Birth of Republican party (former Whigs joined by many northern Dems)
-This law came to the forefront when Senator Stephen A. Douglas proposed to divide the Nebraska Territory into two regions. Because both regions lay above the 36 30' line of demarcation stipulated by the Missouri Compromise, this could theoretically open these lands to slavery. Passage of this bill would mean the repeal of the Missouri Compromise of 1820. Douglas pushed his bill through both houses and it was signed into law by President Pierce in 1854. Northern Democrats believed the Union had "sold out" to the South with regard to the slavery issue
The Wilmot Proviso
1. Reawakening of slavery controversy
a. Things stop being about Whigs and Democratics
b. The great North-South divide is "'brought to a head'"
2. Van Buren and his running mate, JQA's son - Charles Francis Adams - create the Free Soil Party
. They get 14% of Northern vote - shows that antislavery isn't limited to abolitionists anymore
3. Democratics nominate Lewis Cass of Michigan
. Believes slavery question should be left to the settlers ("popular sovereignty")
4. Whig Zachary Taylor wins
During the Mexican War, President Polk hoped to acquire more territory from Mexico. He asked Congress for $2 million in order to negotiate a peace in order to obtain California; at this time, Representative David Wilmot proposed adding an amendment to this bill in which he proposed free soil in 1847. In this proposal, Wilmot suggests adding an amendment that makes slavery barred in any territory acquired from Mexico. Although this proviso managed to pass the House twice, it did not pass the Senate. This was a speech in congress Wilmot gives; in it, he states the main problem with slavery is not whether or not it will exist where it already does but if it will be carried to new places. Free soil is a middle ground between abolitionists and anti-abolitionists; Wilmot is not pro-abolition but is just pro-containment of slavery. This relates to the rise of the Civil War because had more people gone behind the Free Soil movement, the slavery conflict (which is one of the causes of the War) could have potentially been solved.
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