50 terms

AP HUman Geography- Chapter 1

STUDY
PLAY
fieldwork
the study of geographic phenomena by visiting places and observing how people interact with and thereby change those places
human geography
one of the 2 major divisions of geography; the spatial analysis of human population, their cultures, activities, & landscapes
globalization
A set of processes that are increasing interactions, deepening relationships, and heightening interdependence without regard to country borders.
spatial
having to do with space on earth's surface. Sometimes synonym for geographic.
spatial distribution
physical location of geographic phenomena across space
pattern
the design of spatial distribution
pandemic
worldwide outbreak of disease
epidemic
regional outbreak of a disease
spatial perspective
observing variations in geographic phenomena across space
five themes
location, human environment, region, place, movement
location
the first theme of geography; the geographical situation of people and things
location theory
a logical attempt to explain the locational pattern of an economic activity and the manner in which its producing areas are interrelated.
region
the third theme of geography; phenomena are not evenly distributed but concentrated in certain areas called regions
place
the fourth theme of geography; uniqueness of a location
sense of place
state of mind derived through the infusion of a place with meaning and emotion by remembering important events that occurred in that place or by labeling a place with a certain character.
perception of place
belief or "understanding" about a place developed through books, movies, stories or pictures
movement
the fifth theme of geography; the mobility of people goods and ideas across the planet
spatial interaction
depends on the distances among places, the accessibility of place, and the transportation and communication among places
distance
measurement of physical space between two poles
connectivity
the degree of direct linkage between one particular location and other locations in a transport network
cultural landscape
the visible imprint of human activity and culture on the landscape (ex. the layers of buildings, artifacts)
cartography
The art and science of mapmaking
reference maps
maps that show the absolute location of places and geographic features determined by a frame of reference, typically latitude and longitude
thematic map
maps that tell stores typically showing the degree of some attribute or the movement of a geographic phenomenon
absolute location
The exact position of a place on the earth's surface. (latitude longitude)
Global Positioning System (GPS)
a system that determines the precise position of something on Earth through a series of satellites, tracking stations, and receivers
Geographic Information System (GIS)
a computer system that stores organizes and analyzes georgraphic data
geocaching
a hunt for a cache, the GPS coordinates which are placed on the Internet by other geocachers
relative location
The regional position or situation of a place relative to the position of other places.
generalized map
A general map depicting a certain piece of info. such as precipitation.
rescale
involvement of players at other scales of generate support for a position or an initiative
functional region
a region defined by the particular set of activities or interactions that occur within it
culture
the attitudes and behavior that are characteristic of a particular social group or organization
cultural trait
a single element of normal practice in a culture (e.g., wearing a turban)
cultural hearth
place of origin of a major culture( where it began)
cultural complex
A related set of cultural traits, such as prevailing dress codes and cooking and eating utensils.
cultural barrier
prevailing cultural attitude rendering certain innovations, ideas or practices unacceptable or unadoptable in that particular culture.
time-distance decay
The declining degree of acceptance of an idea or innovation with increasing time and distance from its point of origin or source.
expansion diffusion
The spread of an innovation or an idea through a population in an area in such a way that the number of those influenced grows continuously larger, resulting in an expanding area of dissemination.
contagious diffusion
The distance-controlled spreading of an idea, innovation, or some other item through a local population by contact from person to person - analogous to the communication of a contagious illness.
hierarchical diffusion
an idea innovation spreads by first among the most connected places or peoples
stimulus diffusion
a form of diffusion in which a cultural adaptation is created as a result of the introduction of a cultural trait from another place
relocation diffusion
The spread of a feature or trend through bodily movement of people from one place to another.
geographic concept
ways of seeing the world spatically that are used by geographers in answering research questions
political ecology
An approach to studying nature - society relations that is concerned with the ways in which environmental issues both reflect, and are the result of, the political and socioeconomic contexts in which they are situated.
cultural ecology
The multiple interactions and relationships between a culture and the natural environment.
isotherm
line on a map connecting points equal temperature values
environmental determinism
the view that the natural environment has a controlling influence over various aspects of human life including cultural development
possibilism
The physical environment may limit some human actions, but people have the ability to adjust to their environment.
remote sensing
collecting data through instruments that are distant from the area of object of study (for ex. satellites)