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21 terms

Bio Chapter 8 Mitosis

Biology
STUDY
PLAY
chromosomes
structures that hold most of organism's DNA, which is duplicated and inherited. They are allocated to opposite sides of the parent cell.
cell division
the reproduction of cells
Binary Fission
1. chromosomes duplicated
2. chromosome duplication progresses + membrane grows
3. cell reaches twice its initial size, two daughter cells divide
chromatin
- combination of protein and protein molecules
- as a cell prepares to divide, chromatin forms compact disks called chromosomes
sister chromatids
- consist of 2 copies of chrosomes; identicle DNA molecules
- joined tightly together at the center w/ centromeres
cell cycle
the sequence of a cell in where it divides
interphase
cell's metabolic activity is very high; where G1, S and G2 occurs
Mitotic phase (M phase)
- about 10% of cell cycle
- Prophase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase, cytokinesis
Cytokinesis
cytoplasm is divided in two
- (animal cell) clevage furrow
- (plant cell) cell plate
interphase
- a cell grows and prepares for division
- takes in ATP
Prophase
- chromatin turns into chromomes
- disintegration of nuclear envelope + nucleolus
- centrosomes grow and begin to move towards centers
Metaphase
-spindles going to opposite poles
- sister chromatids connected to spindles at equator
anaphase
- spindles fully formed on both poles
- sister chromosomes separated
- sister chromosomes separated at centromeres and start to be attracted towards poles
telophase
-chromatin starts to form
- on opposite sides
- nucleoli appear
anchorage dependence
- cells must be in contact w/ a solid surface
density-dependence inhibition
cells stop dividing when they touch one another
growth factor
-is a protein secreted by cells that tell cells to divide or to stop dividing
cancer cells
- don't respond to cell cycle control system; continue to grow and divide rapidly
- can be dangerous or harmless
- can form tumors
tumors
- benign=harmless
- malignant=dangerous
metastasis
- when cancer cells form their own circulatory system to feed itself
Types of Cancer
-Carcinomas
-Sarcomas
- Lukemias
- Lymphomas