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2 primary goals of sharpening

to maintain sharpness throughout apt. and maintain original shape of instrument

6 benefits of a sharp instrument

1. precision
2. control
3. tactile sensitivity
4. improved quality
5. less working time / reduced fatigue
6. less hand strain from less pressure

Improved Quality from sharpening entails (3)

1. less cal burnishing
2. less chance of gouging root surface
3. preventing trauma

5 consequences of dull instruments

1. ineffective instrumentation
2. wasted time, effort, and, energy
3. increased chance of musculoskeletal injury
4. loss of control leading to tissue trauma from slippage
5. loss of patient confidence in operator

3 types of sharpening materials

1. natural abrasive stones
2. non-metallic substances impregnated with 3 types of abrasives
3. steel alloy metals

give an example of a natural abrasive stone and why is it good for sharpening

Arkansas stone good due to fine particle size

what 3 substances are non-metallic stones impregnated with

1. aluminum oxide
2. silicon carbide
3. diamond particles

3 examples of non-metallic stones

1. diamond hone
2. ruby stone
3. carborundum stone

1 example of a steel alloy sharpening stone and what is it made from

Neivert whittler made from Tungsten carbide

Are steel alloys good for sharpening

No, they are harder than most instruments so they can sharpen but can damage it

what type of stone do we use SCC

a non-metallic: ceramic aluminum oxide

3 types of unmounted stones

1. flat (ours)
2. cylindrical
3. others (Neivert whittler)

What is the other type of stone besides the unmounted

Mandrel mounted/power driven, come in various shapes

How are the stones kept clean

place in cassette, they should go through ultrasonic

stone needs to go through ultrasonic to...

remove embedded metal and maintain sterility during appointment

Which type of stone requires 1-2 drops of oil

quarried stones

what do the drops of oil do

prevent glazing on stone of embedded metal particles and prevents gouging

3 the main advantage of ceramic vs quarried stone is

quarried stone and instruments need sterilization after sharpening, ceramic/artificial stone maintain sterility during apt.,
can be wet or dry,
they inflict less nicks in blade from suspended particles

describe a sharp edge vs. a dull edge

sharp edge has length and no thickness,
dull edge has length and width or thickness

list 2 tests for sharpness

1. light reflection test
2. plastic or acrylic testing stick

list the angle to apply instrument to stick and area of cutting edge

70 degrees, must test whole length of cutting edge

when should sharpening be done

1. before apt.
2. during apt. at first sign of slipping, burnishing, or no scaling sound

describe how stone is held during sharpening

good grasp
moderate pressure mostly on down stroke
short strokes about half inch

maintaining control of the stone ensures...

entire surface reduced evenly

varying placement of instrument to stone ensures...

no grooving in stone

instrument size reduction eventually leads to

thin blade likely to break and/or
no longer adapts to tooth surface

the Sharpen Rite Guide keeps the stone to instrument cutting edge angled at...

100 to 110 degrees

the handle is placed where on guide

on line that says "universal"

the face of instrument face and terminal shank relative to floor

face parallel to floor,
terminal shank perpendicular

the internal angle is...

70 to 80 degrees = face to lateral sides

sickle scalers have cutting edge...

on both sides of face but not on toe

universal curets have cutting edge...

on both sides of face and on toe

area specific curets have cutting edge where and how can you distinguish it...

on one side of face and on toe,
this is longer edge

what occurs if angle of stone is 90 degrees

moderate sharpness and design change

what occurs if angle of stone is less than 90

unsafe bevel is created

metal particles removed but remain attached to edge after sharpening called...

wire edge

2 ways to minimize wire edge

1. sharpen down / towards cutting edge
2. wipe with gauze or swipe with cone

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