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Arts and Humanities
History of Europe
Chapter 9: The Age of Enlightenment: 18th-century thought
Terms in this set (35)
Rulers whose policies sought to centralize their authority so as to reform their countries. They often attempted to restructure religious institutions and to sponsor economic growth.
The 18th century writers and critics who forged the new attitudes favorable to change. They sought to apply reason and common sense to the institutions and societies of their day. Mostly French, statesmen from nobility and middle class. They lived under absolutist.
Appeared in Europe in the centuries after the advent of the Western printing-press, to scribal culture. Culture in which books, journals, newspapers, and pamphlets had achieved a status of their own.
The collective effect on political and social life of views circulated in print and discussed in the home, the workplace, and centers of leisure.
Francois-Marie Arouet (Voltaire)
(1694-1778) Career was full of disruptions caused by his offenses against the rulers of France. He was a prime minister to Frederick the Great. He published Letters on the English in 1733, whish praised the virtues of the English, especially their religious liberty, and implicitly criticized the abuses of French society. He published Elements of the Philosophy of Newton in 1738, which popularized the thought of Isaac Newton. In 1759, he wrote the novel Candide.
Published by Voltaire in 1795, attacking war, religious persecution, and what he considered unwarranted optimism about the human condition.
"Crush the Infamous Thing"
Published by Voltaire, summed up the attitude of a number of philosophes toward the intolerance that they believed characterized some parts of organized Christianity. Almost all varieties of Christianity, especially Roman Catholicism, as well as Judaism and Islam, were the targets of their criticism.
(1724-1804) He admired Frederick the Great. He published 'What is Enlightenment?' in 1784. He Argued in 1784 that freedom of the press will result in Enlightenment. He separated science and morality into separate branches of knowledge. Science could describe natural phenomena of the material world but could not provide a guide for morality.
A belief in a rational God who had created the universe but then allowed it to function without his interference according to the mechanisms of nature and a belief in rewards and punishments after death for human action. God as a kind of cosmic clockmaker who created a perfect universe that he does not have to intervene in - grew out of Newton's natural law theories.
(1771-1776) argued that no empirical evidence supported the belief in divine miracles central to much of Christianity. Scotsman who emphasized limitations of human reasoning and stated that the human mind is nothing but a bundle of impressions. Later he became dogmatic skeptic who undermined the Enlightenment, Also best friend to Adam Smith.
(1729-1786) Berlin. "Jewish Socrates," argued that Jews could combine loyalty to Judaism with adherence to rational, Enlightenment values. Wrote Jerusalem or On Ecclesiastical Power and Judaism in 1783. He argued both for extensive religious toleration and for maintaining religious distinction of Jewish communities. Sought both toleration of Jews within European society and toleration by Jews of a wider spectrum of opinion within their own communities.
(1713-1783) started the idea and edited 28 volumes of the Encyclopedia.
A product of the collective effort of more than a hundred authors, and its editors that one time or another solicited articles from all the major French philosophes. It included the most advanced critical ideas of the time on religion, government, and philosophy. Also included numerous important articles and illustration on manufacturing, canal-building, ships construction, and improved agriculture, making it an important source of knowledge about eighteenth-century social and economic life.
Eighteenth-century French thinkers who attacked the mercantilist regulation of the economy, advocated a limited economic role for government, and believed that all economic production depended on sound agriculture.
(1723-1790) Self interest is OKAY!! Government stay out of it! Wrote the Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations" in 1776. Believed economic liberty was the foundation of a natural economic system. Urged that the mercantile system of England hindered the expansion of wealth and production. The best way to encourage economic growth, was to allow individuals to pursue their own selfish economic interest.
Wealth of Nations
A complex book by Adam Smith. He argued that the government should in particular support education of those people who occupied the humbler occupations of life. Included the important theory of human social and economic development, known as the four-stage theory. (Demographic Transition Model)
French phrase meaning "allow to do." In economics the doctrine of minimal government interference in the working of the economy.
(1689-1755) Lawyer, noble of the robe, and a member of a provincial parlement. Published The Persian Letters to satirize contemporary institutions. Spirit of the Laws in 1748, exhibits the internal tensions of the Enlightenment. He concluded that no single set of political laws could apply to all peoples at all times and in all places. Defined the theory of separation of powers of the three branches of government. He outlines a system of checks and balances by which a government can be controlled. He also discussed what conditions were favorable to liberty, and greatly admired the English balance of power. His work helped design most of the governmental systems in the world today.
Madame de Pompadour
(1721-1764) Mistress of King Louis XV, played a key role in overcoming efforts to censor the Encyclopedia. She also hindered the publication of works attacking the philosophes.
Spirit of the Laws
Published by Montesquieu in 1748. Offered a wide-ranging comparative analysis of governmental institutions. In the 18th century, it implied that the government was not modeled on the authority of fathers in their families. Instead, the best government was the one tone that best accorded with the nature of the people in question.
(1712-1778) Strange, isolated genius who never felt comfortable with the other philosophes. He hated the world and the society in which he lived. He is all about emotion, theory, stick with your guts. In 1750, in Discourse of the Origin of Inequality, he stated that society is artificial and corrupt while Nature is pure, good state. Social Contract in 1762, stated that people surrender individual liberty for General Will (only power- Kings only delegates of the people).
(1699-1777) Supported the publishing of The Encyclopedia. She used her husband's money to host the liveliest salon in France. Her guests included most of the known philosophes. In these salons women were treated like thinking people here and only here in society; it was the only way for a woman to learn about the world and the issues of the day. According to gender theory women played an important role in organizing salons. Created an independent setting free from censorship where diverse educated people could form their public opinion.
A regular social gathering of eminent people, especially writers and artist at the house of a woman prominent in high society.
(1759-1797). Wrote A Vindication of the rights of women. First true feminist who was a defender of the Declaration of the Rights of Men. He daughter was Mary Shelly. She believed marriage was legalized prostitution. Got into a public debate with Edmund Burke about the French Revolution and a private debate with Rousseau on the rights of women.
A Vindication of the Rights of Woman
An essay by Mary Wollstonecraft in 1792. It was her opposition to certain policies of the French Revolution, unfavorable to women, that Rousseau had inspire. Denying good education to women would impede the progress of all humanity.
An artistic style that embraced lavish, often lighthearted, decoration with an emphasis on pastel colors and the play of light.
An artistic movement that began in the 1760s and reached its peak in the 1780s and 1790s. This movement was a reaction against the frivolously decorative Rococo style that had dominated European art from the 1720s on.
Produced works filled with female nudes and with men and women in sexually suggestive poses.
(1684-1721) painted Pilgrimage to Isle of Cithera. Young lovers embark to pay homage to the goddess Venus.
(1748-1825) the foremost French Neoclassical painter, used ancient republican themes in the 1780s to emphasize the corruption of French monarchical government. Painted the Oath of the Horatii in 1748, which illustrates a scene, derived from the ancient Roman historian Livy, of soldiers taking an oath to die for the Roman Republic. Also portrays the concept of separate spheres for men and women.
Form of monarchical government in which the central absolutist administration was strengthened and rationalized at the cost of other, lesser centers of political power, such as the aristocracy, the church, and the parliaments or diets that had survived from the Middle Ages.
(r. 1780-1790) son of Maria Theresa. Determined to strengthen the realm by centralizing the government, promoting commerce, and limiting the power of the nobles. Guaranteed freedom of the press and of religion, reforming the judicial system toward greater quality for all classes, making German the official language for the empire's many ethic minorities in order to foster centralization, and especially abolishing serfdom.
Catherine the Great of Russia
(r. 1689-1725) German. Succeeded to the throne after the murder of her husband, Tsar Perter III, was a patron of many of the lion of the Cossacks, the Pugachev Rebellion, gains some ground with the peasantry, at first tried to dismiss rebellion; later she took it much more seriously and ended her enlightened reforms. She did continue Perter the Great's work of territorial expansion by annexing both Polish and Ottoman land.
Partitions of Poland
Series of three partitions of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth that took place towards the end of the 18th century and ended the existence of the state, resulting in the elimination of the sovereign Crown of the Kingdom of Poland and Lithuania for 123 years.
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