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nutr 120n 13,14,15,16,17,18,19
Terms in this set (117)
define healthful weight
1. allows for regular physical activity
2. maintained without constant dieting
3. normal lab values
4. appropriate for age & physical development
Define successful weight loss
losing the weight and keeping it off for one year
Define Weight Classifications
having too little body fat to maintain normal physiological function
moderate amount of excess fat (usually does not effect health)
excessively high body fat that negatively impacts health
What are the 3 components of energy expenditure
1. BMR (basal metabolic rate)
2. physical activity
3. thermic effect of food
Explain BMR (basal metabolic rate )
*energy expeded to maintain body function at rest
*largely determined by , weight height gender & age
*can be increased by lean mass
Explain physical activity
any movement that expeds more energy than BMR
Explain thermic Effect of Food
Rich fiber, rich protein, whole grain
Understand the factors in society that influence body weight
Plan for healthful weight loss or gain
1. Gradual change in energy intake : realistic
2. regular physical activity 30 mins (60-90 to lose)
3. avoid fad diets
4. Behavior modification techniques
What is a METABLOIC SYNDROME
A cluster of factors increases risk for heart disease,
type 2 diabetes and stroke.
triglyuceride levels above 150mg
HDL Cholesteol levels <40 men, <50 women
high blood pressure
high fasting blood glucose
What are the two ways to measure if you are in the healthy range
1. waist circumference ( above men 40in, women 35in)
2. waist to hip ratio (above men .90, women .80)
What is BMI
BODY MASS INDEX
ratio of weight to height
normal = 18.5 -24.9
overweight = 25-30
obese = 30.1 - and above
how do you calculate your bmi
weight/ inches(squared) X 703
Give some limitaions of using BMI
Age, gender , bone structure, fat location,
fat mass vs. lean mass
how many calories are in one pound
How can you achieve and maintain healthful weight
1. change in attitue, persipective & physcholigal blocks
2. set long term goals, commit to it , action plan
3. move more
4. food should be nutrient dense
5 prioritze sleep
How to gain weight safely
1. moderate fat intake
2. increase calories 500-1000 per day
3. aviod tobacco (appetite suppressent)
4. begin weight bearing activity
What is DISORDERED EATING
***atypical eating behaviors
after a long period of time may become a eating disorder
What is a EATING DISORDER
cliniclay diagnosed , psychiatric disorder
severe disturbances : self esteem, body image
Define ORTHOREXIA NERVOSA
over-attentiveness to food, diet planning =no flexibility
label all foods as good and bad
consumed with what and how much to eat
harshly judge own eating habits (impacts mood and self esteem)
can easily transiton into a eating disorder
List 5 major factors contributing to eating disorder
3. society / culture
Define ANOREXIA NERVOSA
self starvation, leading to severe deficiencies
Meets diagnostic criteria=
refusal to maintain min. weight
intense fear of fat
amenorrhea (absense of period )
heart, kidney bone and blood issues
What is EDNOS
Eating disorder not otherwise specified
Define BULIMIA NERVOSA
Binge / Purge
Diagnotic criteria =
binge 2 times a week for 3 months
compensatiory behavior , vomiting, exercise, laxative
very low self esteem
health risks =
esophageal problems , gerd
kidney/ heart failures
low blood work
Define Female Athlete Triad
Low energy availabilty, bone loss, ameorrhea
causes: culture of sport, judging, apparel ect........
symptoms: stress fractures, dehydration, fatique, skipping meals, extra exercise ect.......
Explain Eating disorder Treatment
2. WITH WHOM: *
*, physician, dietitian
3. Where: specialized facility, out patient, support group
4. try to gain 1-2 pounds week
Define Physical activity
any movement that expends more energy above BMR
What is exercise
Planned and purposeful activity
What is physical fitness
ability to carry out daily tasks without fatique and with energy to exercise
What are the 4 components of Fitness
1. cardio-respiratory fitness
2. musculoskeletal fitness
4. body composition
1. frequency = how often
2. intensity = how hard
3. time = how long
How do you calculate maximum heart rate?
220 - age
how do we use macronutrients for exercise?
carbohydrates are increased
proteins are increased
fats are decreased
How energy needs change with more activity?
ATP only stores about 3 seconds of energy for muscles
ATP releases "p" phosphate = ADP , then CrP +P is added back to ADP to make ATP again for more energy
and repeats again..........
good for sprints , power lifting ect....
How do we fuel activity?
glucose & glucogen via glycolysis , during HIGH intensity activity
Which the end product is purvate.
What happens to purvate during high intensity acitivity?
with oxygen becomes acetyl CoA
without oxygen becomes lactate (acid)
Explain the Cori cycles *
muscles = glucose -->pyrvate-->Lactate(w/o o2)--->
blood---> liver--->lactate-->pyrvate-->glucose and returns back to muscles to repeat the cycle...
Why lactate is not a waste product?
because we recycle the energy vis cori cycle.
How do we hydrate for activity?
PRE: 3-4 hours before 16-24 oz
DURING: <30min dont need anything
30-60min --sipping cool water
60 mins+ = replace water , lytes, carbs
POST : for every pound lost drink 16-20 oz.
What are the 3 types of heat illness?
1. heat syncope - dizziness
2. heat exhaustion - rash, cramps syncope
3. heat stroke - excessive sweating, weakness nausea, dizziness headache, difficutly concentrating
What are ERGOGENIC AIDS?
performance enhancers (bad)
steroids, androstenedione (andro), DHEA, GHB,
ALSO creatine but this is considered safe when used correctly 10 mg X one week off 3 weeks
What is body composition?
What is the best way to evaluate your fitness level?
via cardiorespiratory fitness
Explain Cardiorespiratoy Fitness
ability of the heart lungs and circulatory system to efficiently supply oxygen and nutrients to the muscles
Explain the Musculoskeletal fitness
abilities of the muscle & bone system
What is Muscular strength
max force that a muscle or muscle group produces
one rep only
What is Muscular Endurance
submax force that is repeated or maintained
How long do we need our max heart rate to show health improvements
65-90% while working out
What are the 4 major things that should be included when creating a fitness program?
3. appropriately overload your body
How often should you work out
cardio = 3X week 30 min
muscular = 2 x/week 15 min
flex = each day 5 mins
Fatty Acids regenerate ATP through
lipolysis and B-oxidation
What are the micronutrients needs during activity
vitamin C for lung health
What are the popular packaging techniques?
1. Aseptic--flash heat & cool, sterile containor
2. Modified atmosphere--inert gas in package
3. high-pressure-- seal package w/no air
What is our most common preservative?
SALT AND SUGAR
What are our food additives?
flavoring agents --naturally occuring:oil,spices
flavor enhancers-- artifical : msg, maltol
food coloring- natural or synthetic\
texturizer stabilizers, emulsifiers
moisture levelers or absorpters
generally recognized as safe
Define the Delaney clause
no additive may be permitted in any anount if tests show it produces cancer when fed to man or animals or by other test
(be we still do it )
What is the BPA numbers give examples
5-7 do not have BPA
1-2 do have BPA
What is GMO?
GENETICALLY MODIFIED ORGANISM
dna of food has been altered
What is a side effect of using growth hormones
use of antibiotics
what is organic mean?
Conventional non-orgainc pesticides, insecticides, and herbicides are restricted,
livestock must be raised without the use of antibiotics or growth hormones
cannot be genetically modified
raised & harvested in an orgainic environment
Explain the stamp of USDA ORGANIC seal
use the seal
1. 100 % organic -all ingredients are organic
2. organic- 95 % of ingredients are organic
3. made w/organic ingred - 70%-94%
4. ingredient panel only-less than 70%
Identify orgainsm involved in food-borne infections and intoxication.
1. salmonella = chicken
2. e. Coli - beef
3. C. Botulinum = can foods
4. staphylococcus = food left out
5. listeria - pork
Describe strategies for preventing food-borne illness
1. clean - hands and surfaces often
2. separate foods - cross contamination
3. chill= keep at safe temp
4. cook = food to proper temperture
What are the optimal weight gain ranges during pregnancy?
if normal bmi
1st trimester 3-5 pounds
2nd trimester 1 pound per week
3rd trimester 1 pound per week
if overweight 2&3 tri = 0.6 lbs per week
if obese = 0.5 lbs per week
What nutrients are most essential for spinal development as well as growth and cell differentiation?
Folate red blood cells
B12 regenerates active folate
vit C = collagen
Vit A = cell growth & differentiation ***
Iron = blood
Zinc = dna, rna & protein synthesis\
How much does your fluid needs increase during pregnancy
3 liters a day 104 ounces
production of breast milk
What is most important in the first breast milk?
colostrum -==rich in proteins, antibodies, vitamins and minerals
How does the nutrients change when you are breastfeeding
calorie in takes increase approx 400 cal/per day
need more protein, carbs vitamins calcuim iron and fluid for the best production of breast milk
Give some advantages of breast feeding
1. high quality nurition of proteins dha for baby
2. gives antibodies & bateria for baby
3. weight loss
4. suppresses ovulation
5. coventient, cost -effecient
Give some disadvantages of breast feeding
harmful substances are passed into breast milk
HIV can pass into breast milk
What is any movement produced by muscles that increases energy expenditure is called?
The ability to carry out daily tasks with energy and alertness is called
The failure of the spinal cord to close results in neural tube defects and is associated with an inadequate intake of
Activity that is purposeful planned and structured is called
The amount of alcohol that is known to be safe for a pregnant woman is
An infant needs to consume about ______% of their calories from fat ech day ?
40 - 50%
Cow's milk can be introduced to a child at what age?
one year old
Regular physical activity does all of the following
1. improves sleep
2. enhances flexibilty
3. enhances mood
What can stunt skeletal growth?
caffeine, weight lifting and smoking
Solid foods can be introduced to infants at what age?
Anorexia is associated with an eating pattern that leads to self-_____________?
The body can generate ATP from the breakdown of all of the following except ?
carbs, fats , creatine phosphate, vitamins
The estimated maximal heart rate for a 25 year old individual would be _____ beats per minute
Diabetes that is present only during a pregnancy is called ?
Difficulty swallowing foods is called ?
The eating disorder associated iwth recurrent episodes of extremem overeating and compensatory behaviors to prevent weight gain is ?
The Female Athlete Triad consists of low energy intake, amenorrhea and ????
osteoporosis (bone Loss)
What mineral needs are decreased with aging?
Athletes should consume how many grams of protein per kilgram of body weight?
1.2 to 1.7
Severe __________ deficiency impairs growth, immunity and reproductive capacity?
Substances used to improve exercise and athletic performance are called ____________aids
Food __________results from consuming food containing living microorganisms
Temperature range between ______, _______ is referred to as the "danger zone" for food borne illness
40F to 140 F
How do we thraw meats or poultry?
in the refregerator
Which food-bourne illness may lead to kindney infection?
What are 4 major concerns of adolescents are
smoking, alcohol drugs, dietary and body images
What is extremely important for growth and cell differentation during pregnancy
Vitamin A and zinc
What is pica ?
Craving for non foot items ex chalk
Which nutrient deficiencies are vegan children at an increased risk of
B12 , calcium , iron and zinc
What is sarcopenia
Is the loss of muscle tissue, which is a part of the aging process
List the energy systems used to support physical activity
1. glycolysis (GLUCOSE,)
2. creatine phosphate CrP (atp)
3. LIPOLYSIS (fatty acids)
how much % of fat should toddlers have in their diet?
how many grams should people have as a minumum regardless of age daily
130 grams and should be high quality
A vegan diet may be low in Which vitamins
B 12 AND D
A vegan diet may be a risk of being low in what other nutrients
iron, calcium omega 3 and protein
In children most nutrient needs increase for fat, carbs and protein to what daily needs
25-35% from fat
130 grams of carbs
.95 grams per kg of body weight protein
What can cause a growth plate to close early?
caffeine, smoking, excessive weight bearing activity, excessive cardio training, and obesity
For adolescents the macronutrient needs are
25-35% from fat
< 10% from saturated fat
45-65% from carbs
.85 gram/kg of protein
What does calcium intake help build up?
peak bone density
What is the major role of Vitamin A?
What are the 4 physiologic changes of Aging
1. declined sensory perception
2. gastrointestinal function= dysphagia
3. body composition ^fat, decrease muscle mass
4. organ function decreases
What changes in the nutrient needs of eldery
decrease energy from loss of muscle, lean tissue
protein needs go up
calcium & vit D goes up
iron goes down
adequate intake of b vitamins
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