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APES CH 14 and 21 Vocab
Terms in this set (22)
Water that has a dissolved salt concentration of less than 1% by volume. Only .024% of the world's water is available as liquid freshwater in lakes, rivers, and streams. However, it is collected, purified, recycled, and distributed in the earth's hydrologic cycle.
Water that sinks into the soil and is stored in slowly flowing and slowly renewed underground reservoirs called aquifers (important source of freshwater)
Porous, water-saturated layers of sand, gravel, or bedrock that can yield an economically significant amount of water.
Natural replenishment of an aquifer by precipitation, which percolates downward through soil and rock.
Precipitation that does not return to the atmosphere by evaporation or infiltrate into the ground. It is water that flows off the land into bodies of surface water.
Land from which surface water, sediment, and dissolved substances drains into a river, lake, wetland, or other body of water.
Natural or artificial pond or lake used for storage and regulation of water. Large reservoirs capture and store runoff and release it as needed to control floods, to generate electricity, and to supply water for irrigation.
Removing dissolved salts from ocean water or from slightly salty waters in aquifers or lakes for domestic use. (One way of increasing supplies of freshwater).
Using drip-irrigation and replacing green lawns with native vegetables or aesthetic stones to reduce water use by 30-85% and reduce need for labor, fertilizer, and fuel. Preserves biodiversity by reducing polluted runoff, air pollution, and yard wastes.
50-75% of slightly dirty water in a house could be stored in a holding tank and then reused as gray water to irrigate lawns, flush toilets, and wash cars.
Flat valley floor next to a stream channel, has potential for flooding, including certain coastal areas.
Chemical, biological, or physical change in water quality that has a harmful effect on living organisms or makes water unsuitable for desired uses.
discharge pollutants at specific locations through drain pipes, ditches, or sewer lines into bodies of surface water. Ex: factories, sewage treatment plants, underground mines, and oil tankers
Scattered and diffuse and cannot be traced to any single site of discharge. Ex: Deposition from the atmosphere and runoff of chemicals and sediments into surface water from cropland, livestock feedlots, urban streets, and lawns.
Physical, chemical, and biological changes that take place after a lake, estuary, or slow-flowing stream receives inputs of plant nutrients (nitrates and phosphates) from natural erosion and runoff from surrounding land basins.
Gasoline additive that causes groundwater pollution by contaminating wells & groundwater.
Oil tank that went off course, hit rocks, and release large amount of oil into Alaska's Prince William Sound, contaminating 1,500 kilometers of shore and cost Exxonmobil $8 billion.
CLEAN WATER ACT
Set standards for allowed levels of key water pollutants and requires polluters to get permits limiting how much of various pollutants they can discharge into aquatic systems.
Underground tank for treating wastewater from a home in rural and suburban areas. Bacteria in the tanks decompose organic wastes. The sewage flows out of the tank into the ground through a field of drainpipes.
PRIMARY SEWAGE TREATMENT
Mechanical sewage treatments in which large solids are filtered out by screens and suspended solids settle out as sludge in a sedimentation tank.
SECONDARY SEWAGE TREATMENT
Second step in most waste treatment systems in which aerobic bacteria decompose as much as 90% of degradable, oxygen-demanding organic wastes in wastewater. Usually involves bringing sewage and bacteria together in trickling filters or in activated sludge process.
TERTIARY SEWAGE TREATMENT
Series of specialized chemical and physical processes used to remove specific pollutants left in the water after primary and secondary treatment. Uses special filters to remove phosphates and nitrates from wastewater before it is discharged into surface waters.
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
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APES Chapt 1 Vocab
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