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Chapter 4: Ethical and Social Issues in Information Systems
Terms in this set (72)
refers to the principles of right and wrong that individuals, acting as free moral agents, use to make choices to guide their behaviors
The use of computers to combine data from multiple sources and create detailed electronic files of information on individuals
Non obvious relationship Awareness (NORA)
New data analysis technology that gives both the government and the private sector even more powerful profiling capabilities
Mechanisms are in place to determine who took responsible action and who is responsible
Process in which laws are known and understood and there is an ability to appeal to higher authorities to ensure that the laws are applied correctly
A feature of political systems in which a body of laws is in place that permits individuals to recover the damages done to them by other actors, systems or organizations
You accept the potential costs, duties, and obligations for the decisions you make
Descartes rule of change,
If an action cannot be taken repeatedly, it is not right to take at all
Do unto other as you would have them do unto you
Immanunel Kants Categorical Imperative
If an action is not right for everyone to take it is not right for anyone
Ethical "no free lunch" rule
If something someone else has created is useful to you, it has value and you should assume the creator wants compensation for this work
Risk Aversion Principle
Take the action that produces the least harm or the least potential cost
Take the action that achieves the higher or greater value
Fair Information Practices (FIP)
Set fourth in 1973 by a federal government advisory committee and updated in 2010 to take into account new privacy-invading technology
Consent given with knowledge of all the facts needed to make a rational decision
Private self regulating policy and enforcement mechanism that meets the objectives of government regulators and legislation but does not involve government regulation or enforcement
Small text files deposited on a computer hard drive when a user visits Web sites
Can secretly install itself on an Internet user's computer by piggybacking on larger applications
tiny software programs that keep a record of users' online click stream and is invisibly embedded in email message/web pages
Model of information consent in which a business is prohibited from collecting any personal information unless the consume specically take action to approve information collection and use
Model of inormed consent of permits the collection of personal information until the consumer specifically requests that the data not be collected
Intangible property created by individuals or corporations
a formula, device, pattern, or compilation of data; used for a business purpose, provided it is not based on information in the public domain
Statutory grant that protects creators of intellectual property from having their work copied by others for any purpose during the life of the author plus an additional 70 years after the author's death
Grants the owner an exclusive monopoly on the ideas behind an invention for 20 years
Digital Millennium Copyright Act,
makes it illegal to circumvent technology-based protections of copyrighted materials
Commission of illegal acts through the use of a computer or against a computer system
Commission of acts involving a computer that may not be illegal but that are considered unethical
Junk e-mail sent by an organization or individual to a mass audience of Internet users who have expressed no interest in the product or service being marketed
Exists in U.S schools, with schools in high-poverty areas less likely to have computes, high-quality educational technology programs, or Internet access availability for their students
Repetitive stress injury (RSI)
Occurs when muscle groups are forced through repetitive actions often with high-impact loads or tens of thousands of repetitions under low impact loads
Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS)
Most common kind of RSI, in which pressure on the Median nerve through the wrists bony structure, called a carpal tunnel, produces pain
Computer Vision syndrome
refers to any eyestrain condition related to display screen use in desktop computers, laptops, e-readers, smartphones, and handheld video games
Stress induced by computer use. Symptoms include aggravation, hostility toward humans, impatience, and fatigue
• Ethical Dilemma? (5)
1. Pirating is becoming a problem
2. Today they are broader faster and better equipped than ever
3. Pirated content threatens television industry profits and intellectual property
4. This has been made possible by faster internet speeds
5. Ex. Pirate bay
1. Google adjusted its search result algorithm to obscure search results for sites with pirated content
2. NBC has content recognition technology to help block illegal uploads
3. Spotify, Rhapsody, Netflix and Itunes all assist in this by charging a small fee
Double Edged Sword? (2)
Double Edged Sword:
1. Benefits: ability to share and transmit legitimate photos, music, videos and information.
2. Disadvantages: Creates new opportunities for breaking the law or taking benefits away from others, including owners of intellectual property.
The past 10 years? (4)
Pressing Ethical issues? (3)
1. Past 10 years have been most ethically challenging period for U.S. and global business
2. Managers who violate the law and are convicted are most likely to face time in prison
3. Business firms in the past would protect employees firms now cooperate with prosecutors to reduce charges against the firm.
4. Information systems assist in fraud
Pressing Ethical issues
1. Establishing Accountability for the consequences of information systems
2. Setting standards to safeguard system quality that protects the safety of the individual and society
3. Preserving values and institutions considered essential to the quality of life in an information society
Examples of Failed Ethical Judgment by Senior Managers? (3)
Examples of Failed Ethical Judgment by Senior Managers
1. Barclays Bank PLC- Admitted to manipulation its submissions for the LIBOR benchmark interest rates in order to benefit its trading positions
2. GloxSmithKline LLC- Global health care giant admitted to unlawful and criminal promotion of certain prescription drugs
3. Walmart Inc.- Accused of paying millions in bribes to Mexican officials in order to receive building permits
Model of thinking about Ethical, Social and Political Issues? (3)
Model of thinking about Ethical, Social, and Political Issues
1. A calm pond at equilibrium in which individuals know how to act
2. Information technology disrupts the pond and suddenly new rules and policies need to be in place
3. It may take years to develop etiquette, expectations, social responsibility, politically correct attitudes or approved rules.
Five Moral Dimensions of the Information Age? (4)
Five Moral Dimensions of the Information Age
1. Information rights and obligations. What information rights do individuals and organizations possess with respect to themselves?
2. Property rights and obligation. How will traditional intellectual property rights be protected in a digital society?
3. Accountability and control. Who can and will be held accountable and liable for the harm done to individual and collective information and property rights?
4. Quality of life. What values should be preserved in an information and knowledge based society?
Key Technology Trends that raise Ethical Issues? (6)
1. Computing power doubles every 18 months- More organizations depend on computer systems for critical operations
2. Data storage costs rapidly decline - Organizations can easily maintain detailed databases on individuals
3. Data analysis advances - Companies can analyze vast quantities of data gathered on individuals to develop detailed profiles of individual behavior
4. Networking advances - Copying data from one location to another and accessing personal data from remote locations are much easier
5. Mobile device growth Impact - Individual cell phones may be tracked without user consent or knowledge.
6. Profiling and non-obvious relationship awareness
Ethics in information society? (4)
Who's Responsible? (2)
4. Due Process
1. Information technologies do not have impacts by themselves
2. Whatever information system impacts exist are products of institutional, organizational and individual actions and behaviors
Ethical Analysis? (5)
1. Indentify and describe the facts. Find out who did what to whom, and where, when and how.
2. Define the conflict or dilemma and identify the higher-order values involved. Ethical, social and political issues always reference higher values
3. Identify the stakeholders.
4. Identify the options that you can reasonably take. None of the options satisfy all the interests involved, but that some options do a better job than others
5. Identify the potential consequences of your options. Some options may be ethically correct but disastrous from other points of view.
Candidate Ethical Principles? (6)
1. Golden Rule
2. Immanuel Kant's Categorical Imperative
3. Descartes' rule of change
4. The Utilitarian Principle
5. Risk Aversion Principle
6. Ethical No free lunch rule
Professional Codes and Conduct governing authority? (4)
What do these organizations do?
1. American Medical Association (AMA)
2. American Bar Association (ABA)
3. Association of Information Technology Professionals (AITP)
4. Association of Computing Machinery (ACM)
• These professional groups take responsibility for the partial regulation of their professions by determining entrance qualifications and competence.
Real world Ethical Dilemmas? (2)
1. Voice recognition software reduces the need for human operators by enabling computers to recognize a customer's responses to a series of computerized questions
2. Reduction in workforce's leads to financial difficulties of consumers thus allowing them to rationalize pirating and copying information off the web.
What is the FTC and FIP doing? (2)
2. First Amendment- Freedom of speech
3. Fourth Amendment- Unreasonable searc and seizure
4. Fair Information Practices- Basis for most American and European Privacy Laws.
5. Feral Trade Commission
• The FTC has recommended additional legislation to protect online consumer privacy in advertising networks that collect records of consumer Web activity
• Beginning in 2009 the FTC extended it FIP doctrine to address the issue of behavioral targeting.
Federal Trade Commission Fair Information Practice Principles? (5)
1. Notice/awareness. Web sites must disclose their information practices before collecting data.
2. Choice/Consent. There must be a choice regime in place allowing consumers to choose how their information will be sued for secondary purposes.
3. Access/participation. Consumers should be able to review and contest the accuracy and completeness of data collected
4. Security. Data collectors must take responsible steps to assure that consumer information is accurate and secure from unauthorized use
5. Enforcement. There must be in place a mechanism to enforce FIP principles.
Gramm Leach Biley Act of 1999 (2)
1. Repeals earlier restrictions
2. All financial institutions are required to disclose their policies and practices for protecting the privacy of consumers and offer an opt-out arrangement
Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act? (2)
1. Gives patients access to their personal medical records and the right to authorize how information can be disclosed
2. Doctors and hospitals must disclose the least amount of personal information to complete a given process.
The European Directive on Data Protection? (4)
European Directive on Data Protection
1. In Europe, privacy protection is much more stringent than in the U.S.
2. Informed consent
3. New rules, issued in 2012, require companies like Amazon Facebook, Apple, and Google to obtain explicit consent from consumers about the use of their personal data.
4. Safe harbor
Internet Challenges to Privacy? (6)
What's being done about data mining? (2)
1. Information may pass over many networks and each network is capable of monitoring, capturing and storing communications that pass through it.
2. The monitoring and tracking of web site visitors occurs in the background without the visitors knowledge
4. Although cookie technology can't obtain visitors names and addresses sometimes this information can be obtained through online subscriptions.
5. Web Beacons
1. About 83 percent of Internet users use google Search
2. Whatever Google does with its data has an enormous impact on online privacy.
3. Google acquisition of double click allows for behavioral targeting, the mining of personal information to more closely target certain audiences.
4. Gmail is another data mining arena google uses
5. Opt-out or Opt in
What is being done about data mining
1. Collaborative effort by Microsoft, Mozilla Foundation, Yahoo, and Google are adopting protective practices in regards to online tracking
2. In general most Internet business do little to protect the privacy of their customers, and consumers.
1. Customers feel they have little control over how their information is transmitted and don't know where their complaints will be heard
Behavioral Targeting? (2)
1. Information acquired form website searches, online purchases and smart phone location apps used to advertise other products and services to you.
2. This is a problem because there are a number of circumstances where you don't want others knowing where you are at
3. Also if hackers obtain this information from one site versus doing an extensive investigation than you are much less secure
Technical Solutions? (2)
1. There are few technologies that can protect user privacy during interactions with Web sites.
2. Although encryption options are available for email their needs to be the same technology for browsing.
Trade Secrets (2)
1. Software that contains novel or unique elements, procedures or compilations can be included as a trade secret
2. It is difficult to protect software because of its wide distribution
1. Computer Software Copyright Act (1980)- Clearly provide protection for software program code and for copies of the original sold in commerce.
2. "Look and feel" copyright infringement lawsuits are precisely about the distinction between an idea and its expression.
3. Brown Bag Software v. Symantec Corp. Fount that similar concept, function, general functional features are not protectable y copyright law.
1. Key concepts: novelty, originality and invention.
2. Its difficult to define novelty, originality and invention which is what makes patent law hard to interpret or defend.
3. Ex. Apple and Samsung got into a dispute over the degree that Samsung products were like Apples. Samsung eventually overturned the case because they originated the products.
Challenges to Intellectual Property Rights (5)
1. Contemporary information technologies pose severe threats to intellectual property rights and pose ethical, social and political problems.
2. With the internet copies of books, software, magazine articles or films is widely available.
3. Ex. Individuals have been copying and distributing digitized MP3 music files on the internet for a number of years and it took years for a problem to be recognized.
4. However Pandora, Google music and iTunes are limiting this.
5. The Digital Millennium Copyright Act
Computer related liability problems? (4)
Computer-Related Liability Problems
1. In October 2011 Blackberry users were unable to receive emails for weeks which eventually led to IPhone and Android topping them.
2. This laments that executives of blackberry are responsible for system malfunctions
3. It shows the technological reliance this generation has on software and technologies.
4. The makers of books or telephones were not held liable when their services failed why should software be different?
System Quality? (3)
System Quality: Data Qaultiy and System Errors
1. December 25th, 20123 millions of Netflix and social media networks were blacked out due to failure of amazons cloud computing service.
2. This raises the question what is a an acceptable, technologically feasible level of system quality?
3. If software companies tried to sell flawless products there would be no products
Principle sources of poor system performance? (3)
Principle sources of poor system performance:
1. Software bugs and errors
2. Hardware or facility failures caused by natural or other causes
3. Poor input data quality
Technologies impact on quality of life? (9)
Quality of life: Equity, Access, and Boundaries
1. The negative costs of introducing information technologies and systems are beginning to mount along with the power of the technology
2. Balancing Power: Center Versus Periphery
3. Rapidity of change: Reduced Response Time to Competition
4. Maintaining Boundaries: Family, Work and Leisure.
5. Dependence and Vulnerability
6. Computer Crime and Abuse
7. Employment: Trickle-Down Technology and Reengineering Job Loss
8. Equity and Access: Increasing Racial and Social Class Cleavages
9. Health Risks
Balancing Power: Center Versus Periphery? (3)
1. At one time it was believed that the government would become more powerful with mainframe computers
2. However empowerment of thousands of workers and the decentralization of decision making to lower organizational levels have alleviated such concerns
3. Also key policy decisions are still made by the top
Rapidity of change: Reduced Response Time to Competition (2)
1. Information systems have helped creat much more efficient national and international markets
2. We stand the risk of developing a just-in-time society with just-in-time jobs and just-in-time workplaces, families and vacations.
Maintaining Boundaries: Family, Work and Leisure?
1. Information technology allows us to do our job anywhere which increases the level of productive output we are responsible for. This can interfere with leisure time.
Dependence and Vulnerability (3)
1. Many of us can't or forgot how to live life without technology
2. Many of jobs can't be done in a reasonable period of time without it
3. Ex. When blackberry email systems failed employee's were blocked or unable to get key information or communications to do their jobs
Computer Crime and Abuse (4)
1. New technologies create for new opportunities to steal information as well as new creative ideas to do so
2. Many of these crimes result in financial loss for consumers, companies and the economy
3. Ex. Identity theft.
4. Spamming- a cheap an affordable method of crime in which involves sending fraudulent emails
Employment: Trickle Down Technology and Reengineering Job Loss? (3)
1. Technology causes many to lose their jobs
2. It is believed that we will one day live in an age with only permanent jobs for technology specialists.
3. This calls for brighter highly educated professionals due to decline in unskilled labor type jobs
Health Risks (5)
1. If technology is not used in moderation it can have sever health implications as we age
2. Repetitive Stress injury
3. Carpel Tunnel syndrome
4. Computer vision Syndrome
Equity and Access: Increasing Racial and Social Class Cleavages
1. Everyone does not have equal opportunity to compete in the information age
2. Studies show the poor minority groups do not have access to basic technologies
3. Due to technologies exponential growth life is easier for some than others which has always been the case for centuries.
Downside to technology
1. Those who use technology in excess, 16 hours, do worse in school
2. Technology is limiting how well we understand topics due to providing distractions
3. We are the friends of the alone and talking on a computer disregards many of the benefits of face to face contact
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