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air passageways

nares function

nasal cavity

filters, warms, and moistens air as it passes through cavity

hard palate

prevents movement of food and fluid from oral cavity into nasal cavity

soft palate

moves during swallowing preventing food and fluids from entering nasopharynx

air passageway

posterior nasal apertures function


passageway for air, food, fluids


air passageway and phonation


its movement prevents food and fluids entering larynx during swallowing

vocal folds

phonation and their closure prevents food and fluids from entering larynx

air passageway

glottis function

air passageway

trachea function

air passageway

primary bronchii function

air passageway

secondary bronchii function


secrete pleural fluid

inspiratory muscles

diaphragm, external intercostals

expiratory muscles

internal intercostals, rectus abdominis, external/internal obliques, transversus abdominis

oral cavity

passageway for food and fluids, alternate passageway for air


obtain food and retain it in oral cavity


retain food in oral cavity


moves food during chewing and swallowing; changes shape and position for speech

mechanical digestion

teeth function


passageway for food and fluids

esophageal hiatus

passageway for esophagus


secretes peritoneal fluid


passageway for food and fluids; does some digestion, site of temporary food storage

pyloric sphincter

regulates rate at which chyme leaves stomach


prevent tearing of mucosa when stomach expands

greater omentum

fat storage

small intestine

passageway for food and fluids; site of most digestion and absorption

plicae circulares

increase surface area on small intestine


suspends intestines and prevents tangling

large intestine

passageway for food and fluids; reabsorbs water and stores feces

passageway for food and fluids

cecum function

ileocecal valve

prevents movement of cecal contents back into small intestine

anal canal

regulates defecation

parotid glands

secrete saliva

parotid ducts

passageways for saliva from parotid glands to oral cavity

parotid glands, submandibular glands

secrete saliva (2)


produces bile and performs many nondigestive functions

falciform ligament

attaches liver to diaphragm and anterior body wall


stores bile

bile passageway

common hepatic duct, cystic duct, bile duct are all ____


secretes digestive enzymes and bicarbonate solution

maxillae, mandible

teeth are found in what bone(s)


rugae are found in the _____

small intestine

most absorption of nutrients occurs in the


what muscle does a parotid duct pierce

greater omentum, mesentery, falciform ligament

3 specific portions of the peritoneum


has gastric pits


has pink stained goblet cells

stomach, small intestine, colon

has a serosa

esophagus, stomach, small intestine, colon

has a lamina propria


has stratified squamous epithelium


what specific type of cartilage tissue composes the C-shaped cartilages of the trachea

pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium, yes

what specific type of epithelium lines the trachea and does this epithelium have goblet cells

simple squamous epithelium

what specific type of epithelium composes alveolar walls

nares, larynx, trachea, primary bronchi, secondary bronchi

beginning w/ external nares and ending w/ alveoli, give all airways that have hyaline cartilage in their walls

prevent walls from collapsing

function of hyaline cartilage in structures

pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium lining airways

small particles stick to mucus secreted by this epithelium and ciliary action moves mucus/particles out of airway

divide nasal cavity

function of bone in nasal cavity

simple squamous epithelium of alveoli

making thin membrane across which gas can easily diffuse

to keep trachea from collapsing. stabilize anterior portion, flexible posterior b/c of food passing behind

what is the functional significance of C-shaped tracheal cartilages

having many small ones is more efficient and allows for more gas exchange

why is it advantageous for respiratory tract to end in many small alveoli instead of one large one


provides local control over activities of tract

muscularis externa

coordinates peristalsis. wavelike contractions that move foodstuffs through digestive tract


visceral peritoneum --> reduce friction during tract movements

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