Chapter 6 - Religion - Key Issues 1, 2, 3, & 4
Terms in this set (40)
Buddhism, Tibet, and China Conflict
The 14th Dalai Lama was discovered by Tibetan Buddhist monks and trained to become the religious leader and head of the Tibetan government. Communist China invaded Tibet and destroyed much of the religious and nomadic life within it. They forced many to flee including the Dalai Lama while much of the culture was lost. A sort of rebuilding began along with an increasing immigration but many organizations both domestic and abroad seek autonomy for Tibet and the Buddhist culture.
Religions that attempt to be global, to appeal to all people, wherever they may live in the world, not just those of one culture or location - Ex: Christianity, Islam, and Buddhism
Religions that appeal primarily to one group of people living in one place
The belief that a god or God does not exist
The belief that nothing can be known whether a god or God exists
A large and fundamental division within a relgion
A division of a branch that unites a number of local congregations in a single legal and administrative body
A relatively small group that has broken away from an established denomination
2 billion adherents, more than any other religion in the world - has the Roman Catholic, Protestant, and Orthodox as its 3 major branches - 90% of the western hemisphere - nearly 93% of Christians are Roman Catholic in Latin America, with the majority of Catholics in North America being in the southern US and north eastern US
1.5 billion adherents, predominantly within the Middle East to North and Central Africa - half of the world's Muslims live outside the Middle East: Indonesia, Pakistan, Bangladesh, and India - Sunni compromises 83% of Muslims withing North Africa and Southwest Asia AND Shiite has 16% of Muslims within a handful of countries such as Iran, Pakistan, and Iraq - nearly 90% of Iran's population is Shiite
376 million adherents, 4th largest religion worldwide - Mahayana (56%) branch focused in China, Japan, and Korea - Theravada (38%) branch focused in Cambodia, Laos, Myanmar, Sri Lanka, and Thailand - Vajrayana (6%) known as Lamaists focused in Tibet and Mongolia
900 million adherents, 3rd place in the world, ethnic religion primarily focused with India (90%) with the rest in Bangladesh and Nepal
A religion that combines several traditions
Chinese and combination of religions
Chinese traditional religions are often combinations of Buddhism, Confucianism, Taoism, and other practices - most consider themselves a blend of religious customs - a commingling of diverse philosophies
Used to refer to the practices of ancient people, like the Greeks or Romans, who had multiple gods with human-like form - Now it means and refers to beliefs that originated before religions such as Islam and Christianity
The beliefs that inanimate objects such as plants and stones or natural events such as thunderstorms and earthquakes are 'animated' or have discrete spirits and conscious life
Monotheism vs Polytheism
Monotheism - the belief that there is only one God
Polytheism - the belief that there is a collection of gods
Origins of universalizing religions vs ethnic religions
Universalizing religions - have precise places of origin based on events in the life of a person or group of people|history can be traced to its beginning
Ethnic religions - have unknown or unclear origins, not tied to single historic individuals|history can be traced to a certain point
Connection/Roots between Judaism, Christianity, and Islam
All three religions believe that: Adam was the first man - Abraham was one of his descendants - Abraham had two children with different wives - One of them, Isaac, would be the descendant and link between Judaism and Christianity - The second, Ishmael, would be the descendant of Muhammad, founder of the Islamic faith
Diffusion of religions
Christianity - Southwest Asia|spread through relocation diffusion through missionaries (individuals who help to transmit a universalizing religion through relocation diffusion) who carried the message throughout the Roman Empire and who converted parts of Africa, Oceania, and the New World by order of European nation|spread through a combination of hierarchical and contagious diffusion as leaders such as Constantine of Rome accepted it and then average people spread the message
Islam - South southwest Asia on the Arabian Peninsula|spread through organization conversions (which where sometimes military companions or intermarriages) from Pakistan to North Africa including parts of the Iberian Peninsula|also spread to Indonesia through Arabic traders
Buddhism - Southeast Asia|spread through the Magadhan Empire, especially under Asoka who set up councils to spread the message within the empire|Monks were sent to Myanmar, Kashmir, and Sri Lanka|Chinese kingdoms eventually accepted Buddhism until it spread throughout China into Korea then Japan
Ethnic religions and limited diffusion
Ethnic religions have limited to no diffusion because they lack missionaries to spread the religion - Universalizing religions often spread at the expense of ethnic religions since these religions are those targeted by univ. missionaries - Sometimes the religion is combined with universalizing religions by keeping certain customs or modifying the new religion - Diffusion is often through relocation diffusion where they move to an area and continue their practices - this is only possible where they are not suppressed by the current nation's customs and forced into ghettos or deportation
Why does the church play a more critical role in Christianity than buildings in other religions?
There is a high density of Christian churches | The structure is an expression of religious principles, an environment in the image of God | Collections (donations) are seen as extremely important | Usually located in a prominent OR center of a town
Mosques as a space for community assemblies
Muslims consider a mosque not a sanctified place of worship but an area of united worship | Found in large cities but simple structures are used in rural villages, not needing to ornate
A journey or trip for religious regions to a place considered sacred
The holiest city in Islam | Muhammad was born here and rededicated the Ka'ba for God | The Ka'ba was a big black box containing a piece of black stone Muslims believe was given to Abraham by Gabriel as a sign of a covenant | Any and every healthy and financially able Muslim is expected to take a pilgrimage or a hajj to Mecca in order to show loyalty to Islam | Saudi Arabia issues hajj visas in order to bring Muslims in for the pilgrimage
Hinduism's physical ties to India
Many of India's riverbanks and coastlines are considered holy due to it being necessary to take a tirtha or pilgrimage to these areas to redeem one's self|The Ganges River is one of the holiest rivers due to it's lore and many geographic items such as mountains are considered holy with some being considered important due to locality to others being important overall through tradition
A set of religious beliefs concerning the origin of the universe|A variety of events in the physical environment are more likely to be incorporated in ethnic religions
Christians, Muslims, and Jews - Early burials were done in catacombs to protect the bodies when Christianity was not yet supported|In cemeteries near religious grounds but them moved outside city walls or to nearby areas of land|Requires a lot of land and can use up land quickly within cities and agricultural areas|Muslims use cemeteries as open and public parks due to a lack of|Stronger encouragement of cremation in order to use less land
Calendars and Religion
Universalizing religions tend to have major holidays and times relating to the events of the founder and important figures - Ex: Islam celebrates many days Ramadan to reflect Muhammad's journey but it continually changes due to the usage by Islam of a lunar calendar
Ethnic religions tend to have more clustered distributions based on the distinctive climate and geography especially agriculture events - Ex: Judaism follows a lunar calendar with many important days such as Passover being at times of first seeding to recall the liberation of the Jews form Egypt by Moses OR Sukkot being for the prayers for the final gathering of fruits and rain for the next planting, comes from the memory of when the Jews were lost for 40 years after fleeing Egypt
A religion with a well-defined geographic structure and one that organizes territory into a local administrative units
Roman Catholicism is a good example due to it's large hierarchy with: the Pope on top, Archbishops as heads of provinces, Bishops as heads of dioceses, and Priests as heads of parishes; which are spread throughout the Earth uniformly with every piece of land organized into territories
A religion that is very autonomous, self-sufficient, and little interaction among communities other than loose cooperation and shared ideas
Islam is an example due to a lack of a religious hierarchy nor a formal organization of territories and mosques. Some governments actually manage these religions to some extent along with a high amount of communications and migrations.
The idea of literal interpretation and a strict and intense adherence to basic principle of a religion (branch, denomination, and sect) - Can be used to protect the group's distinctive cultural identity by sticking close to their beliefs and protecting them from the global culture by giving it flaws
Why has the role of religion in organizing Earth's surface diminished?
The increasing power of political and economic dominated societies - in Communist nations, religion is forced to become unimportant but in many religion-dominated areas, it plays an important role yet
In less developed countries, what can participation in the global economy do to their belief system?
It can expose them to values and beliefs from the West which can drive them away from economic development in order to adhere to their dominate religion
Taliban vs. Western Values
Initially started by supporting schools, mosques, and social and religious services - once they took control of Afghanistan, they imposed strict laws against Western activities such as playing music, watching TV, etc - set very cruel punishments for the breaking of these laws and for doing things against their interpretations of the Quran - Were overthrown for the most part by the U.S. coalition in 2001
Hinduism Caste System
Originally started with the implementation of it by the Arayans - set into 4 strict castes with: priests and top administrators first, then warriors, then merchants, then farmers and artisans, and finally the untouchables - This was challenged by the British Empire when it controlled India and pointed out it's shortcomings of the system - This lead to different interpretation levels of Hinduism - Just recently began to change and modernize with the growing flexibility of the caste system due to governmental reform
'Religious Wars in the Middle East'
These conflicts often are caused by Jewish, Christian, and Islamic beliefs that originate at the same place therefore creating a problem when it comes to who will control the land | The Crusades were a series of wars by Christian Kingdoms against Muslim and Turkish invaders for the Holy Land which resulted in Muslim control after many flip flopping of control | Palestine is a very tense area due to the claims by Israel of its control and the numerous attacks and wars it has conducted and survived to defend its territory
'Conflict over the Holy Land: Palestinian Perspectives'
'Conflict over the Holy Land: Israeli Perspectives'
Israel - feels surrounded by Arab and Muslim countries which it feels threatening | accepted the partition of its land but regained the majority of during the wars that followed in order to gain the higher ground, achieve more defensible positions, and separate Palestinian settlements | supported the creation of the West Bank Barrier to protect their settlements
Palestine - many have been forced out by Israel or during the many wars | Palestinians are scattered within the Gaza Strip, the West Bank, Israel itself, and other Arab countries | Divided into two groups, the Fatah wishes to compromise with Israel for both independences BUT Hamas (which has been classified a terrorist organization by some) wants to force out Israel and control the whole area | Contentious conflict and fear can be found in the West Bank
Why is the West Bank Barrier controversial?
The West Bank Barrier is controversial because it was created to stop Palestinian attacks on Israel but also cut off many Palestinians from the rest of the West Bank. The wall also end up claiming and placing parts of the Palestinian West Bank under de facto Israel control. It also cut off many people from their families, jobs, and other important places.
Why is there a long-standing geographic religious conflict in Jerusalem?
There is a long standing conflict over Jerusalem because all three religions of Islam, Judaism, and Christianity consider it a holy city. All of them have certain monuments, holy sites, and historical roots in Jerusalem and each of them has no reasons or intentions of giving up their sections and claims to Jerusalem's importance and holiness.