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6th Grade CST Review

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Neolithic Age
Also called the New Stone Age; a prehistoric period that began about 8000 BCE during which peoel learned to grow crops, raise animals, polish stone tools, and make pottery
prehistoric
the period of time before written records
slash-and-burn agriculture
a method agriculture in which trees are cut down and burned to clear land for farming and to fertilize the land
irrigation
to supply water to land or crops to help them grow
permanent settlements
the first step toward civilization that occurs when people make advances in agricultural production and settle down to live in one location, instead of living as nomadic hunter-gatherers
nomadic
people who have no permanent home, and who travel from place to place to find food and shelter
hunter-gatherers
Nomadic groups whose food supply depends on hunting animals and collecting plant foods
agricultural production
the process of creating goods and services by growing crops and raising animals to provide food, wool, and other products
self-sufficient
not dependent upon others for survival
famine
a terrible shortage of food that can cause starvation
civilization
a complex society that usually has five characteristics, or features: a stable food supply, specialization of labor, a system of government, social levels, and a highly developed culture
monotheism
the belief in only one god
polytheism
the belief in more than one god
democracy
A system of government in which citizens vote to make governmental decisions
Hammurabi
the king of Babylonia from 1792-1750 BCE; he expanded the Babylonian empire and created one of the earliest known collections of laws
Hammurabi's Code
one of the earliest known collection of laws; it consists of 282 laws and a list of punishments for breaking each law
currency
a system of money
artifacts
objects made by humans
fossils
the remains or imprints of once-living plants or animals
Mesopotamia
a region (NOT a country or a nation) called "the land between two rivera," (because it's located between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers); an ancient river-valley civilization in southwest Asia is the location of the earliest known permanent settlements; located in present-day Iraq, Syria, and Turkey
cuneiform
a system of writing developed by the Sumerians (the people of Sumer) that consisted of wedge-shaped characters made with a reed stylus [a small rod with a pointed end] and used in writing several ancient languages
pharaoh
a ruler of ancient Egypt; considered to be a god on Earth
tyrant
a ruler (some of the most famous were from Ancient Greece) who has total power, not limited by a constitution or by other officials
Parthenon
the main temple of the goddess Athena; built on the acropolis in Athens, Greece; an example of Doric architecture
Athena
(Greek mythology) goddess of wisdom
pyramid
huge, triangular, stone structure built by the ancient Egyptians to serve as a tomb and a symbol of the wealth and power of the pharaoh who had it built
hieroglyphics
the ancient Egyptian writing system in which pictorial symbols [pictures] stand for words or sounds
republic
a form of government in which citizens elect representatives to speak or act for them
Ten Commandments
a set of laws about responsible behavior that, according to the Bible, God gave to Moses to deliver to the ancient Hebrews; these laws influenced the development of Western moral and ethical teachings
Moses
he is the Hebrew prophet who led the Israelites from Egypt across the Red sea on a journey known as the Exodus; according to Jewish scripture, he delivered God's laws (the Ten Commandments) to the ancient Hebrews
feudalism OR feudal system
an economic system in which nobles own the farmland and peasants do all the work; for example, the system in ancient China
scripture
the sacred writings of a religion
Abraham
according to Jewish scripture, he is the founder of Judaism
Judaism
the monotheistic religion of the Jewish people; their holy book is the Torah
city-state
a city and its surrounding lands functioning as an independent political unit; examples: Athens and Sparta
Christianity
the monotheistic religion of the Christian people, founded on the teachings of Jesus; their holy book is the Bible
Iliad
a great epic poem written by Homer that tells the Greek myth of the Trojan War; the poem is full of heroic figures and great adventures
Greek mythology
traditional stories about the origin and history of the Greek, their gods, ancestors, and heroes; used to explain events in the natural world; many words used in the English language today originated from these stories
myth
a traditional story about the origin and history of a people and their gods, ancestors, and heroes
atlas
(noun) a collection of maps; derived from the Greek myth of Atlas, a Titan (powerful, giant gods) who carried the world and the heavens on his back
Alexander the Great
(356-323 BCE) a Macedonian king who conquered Greece, Persia, and Egypt, ending the power of the city-states in these areas and establishing one unified nation
Hellenistic
an adjective describing Greek history or culture after the death of Alexander the Great
Persian Empire
an empire in southern Asia created by Cyrus the Great in the 6th century (500s) BCE and destroyed by Alexander the Great in the 4th century (300s) BCE
dynasty
a series of rulers from the same family
Aristotle
(384-322 BCE) a Greek philosopher who was a student of Plato and a teacher of Alexander the Great; one of the most important founding figures in Western philosophy
philosophy
the study of knowledge, existence, and ethics (what is right and what is wrong)
Confucius
a Chinese philosopher and teacher at the end of the Zhou dynasty; he taught that peace and order could be restored to China with education, "ren" (appropriate feelings), "li" (correct actions), and filial piety (respect for one's parents)
The Analects
a book written by the disciples of Confucius that explains all of Confucius' teachings
Main City-States of Ancient Greece
Athens, Corinth, Sparta, and Thebes
Islam OR the Muslim religion
a universal religion (open to everyone) which promises salvation to all who believe and follow the five pillars of Islam; based on the teachings of the prophet Muhammad
Five Pillars of Islam
the five duties that define the Muslim religion:
Ramadan
ninth month of the Muslim calendar marked by fasting
hajj
a pilgrimage to Mecca, performed as a duty by Muslims
Mecca
The holiest city of Islam; Muhammad's birthplace
Muhammad
he is the founder of Islam and Muslims believe him to be the God's last prophet here on Earth; he preached that everyone was equal in the eyes of Allah (God)
Quran
the sacred book of Islam which is believed to contain the actual words of God, as told to the prophet Muhammad
oligarchy
a system of government in which a few people rule
famine
a widespread shortage of food that can lead to death by starvation
Diaspora
the Jewish settlements scattering among the Gentiles (people who are not Jewish) after the Jews' release from exile in Babylonia
prophet
a person who expresses and explains the will of God
plague
a highly contagious, widespread disease that is often fatal
Hinduism
a polytheistic religion which started in India, although no one knows exactly when it began or who created it; sometimes described not just as a religion, but a way of life; centers around belief in dharma (your duty in life), karma, samsara, reincarnation, and moksha
karma
the sum result of all the good and bad deeds you have performed in your life
reincarnation
the process of being "reborn" after death
Siddhartha Gautama
raised as a prince near present-day Nepal, he ran away from his palace and meditated under a bodhi tree until he reached enlightenment. After this experience he was known as the Buddha (enlightened one), going on to found the Buddhist religion
nirvana
the ultimate goal for all Buddhists is to reach this level, which is a release from the cycles of reincarnation when a person makes a perfect union with the universe
Buddhism
a religion begun by Siddhartha Gautama (the Buddha) that states that gods and goddesses are not necessary - everyone can seek enlightenment on his or her own
Hebrews
a nomadic people who migrated out of Mesopotamia sometime around 2000 BCE; they believed that they were protected by their own god YHWH (considered to be too holy of a word to say outloud)
Silk Roads
trade routes that connected India with China
Emperor Qin Shi Huangdi
he unified most of China under one government in in 221 B.C.E. making him the first emperor of a unified China
enlightenment
in Buddhism, a state of perfect wisdom in which one understands basic truths about the universe