7th Grade CST Review

nomadic peoples from central Asia who, in the early 1200s, were led by Genghis Khan, one of the most feared warriors of all time; they spread the bubonic plague along trade routes, taking it from China, where it began, to Europe in the 1300s
Roman Republic
the period from 507 to 31 BCE, during which Rome was run by the aristocratic Roman Senate
group of the most wealthy and privileged members of society
Mansa Musa
(1312 - 1337 CE) the tenth king of the Malian Empire in Africa; at the time, he was one of the wealthiest rulers in the world; he built cities and a University in his Empire; a devout Muslim, he made a famous pilgrimage to Mecca in 1324, making him well-known across northern Africa and the Middle East
Previously known as Byzantium, Constantine changed the name of the city and moved the capitol of the Roman Empire here from Rome.
Northern tribes who invaded and sacked Rome; also a general term for foreign invaders of a different religion
people who are of high rank, title, or birth (they have lots of money and lots of power); in medieval Europe they were in charge of maintaining law and order
rural laborers, or peasants, who were legally tied (not allowed to move away from) to the land on which they worked
a group of people who make laws for a nation
Magna Carta
a document guaranteeing basic political rights in England, drawn up by nobles and approved by King John "Lackland" in 1215 CE; also called "the Great Charter;" an important step towards the creation of a constitutional government in England
a government in which power is in the hands of a single person
constitutional monarchy
a monarchy in which the ruler's power is limited by law
absolute monarchy
a monarchy in which the ruler has unlimited power and seeks to control all aspects of society
the bishop of Rome and the head of the Roman Catholic Church
bubonic plague
a deadly disease that spread from China, across Asia and Europe in the mid-14th century (mid-1300s), killing millions of people; was spread across trade routes, carried by fleas on rats; oh, did I mention that it spread through Europe in the 1300s, 1300s, 1300s, 1300s
a period of one hundred years
direct democracy
a form of government in which citizens rule directly and not through representatives
Marco Polo
a Venetian (from Venice, Italy) merchant and traveler; explored Asia in the 13th century and served Kublai Khan (1254-1324); his accounts of his travels to China offered Europeans a firsthand view of Asian lands and stimulated interest in Asian trade
those who practice the religion of Islam; believe in one God, and the prophet Muhammad whom they believe God spoke through
a period of intense artistic and intellectual activity, said to be a 'rebirth' of Greco-Roman culture; it is usually divided into two separate periods - an Italian one which lasted from the 1350s until the 1450s CE, and a Northern one which lasted from around 1400 to 1600 CE
an ancient Nubian kingdom whose rulers controlled Egypt from 751 to 671 BCE
a teacher and prophet born in Bethlehem and active in Nazareth; his life and sermons form the basis for the Christian religion; Christians believe that he is the son of God
pupils or followers of any teacher or school of thought
Mona Lisa
a painting by Leonardo da Vinci of a woman with a mysterious smile; it now hangs in the Louvre museum in Paris and is one of the most recognized paintings in the world
(1483-1520) Italian Renaissance painter; he painted frescos, his most famous being "The School of Athens"
a durable method of painting on a wall by using watercolors to paint on the wall when the plaster is wet
a painter, a sculptor, architect, and poet; from 1508-1512, he painted the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel, "the greatest single masterpiece in the history of painting;" sculptures of David, Moses and Pieta; designed the Dome of St. Peter's Cathedral
Leonardo da Vinci
(1452-1519) an Italian Renaissance painter, sculptor, inventor, and scientist who was deeply interested in how things worked; he painted the Mona Lisa and the famous religious painting, The Last Supper; considered to be a true Renaissance man
Gutenberg Press
What: created the printing press
When: 1445 - 1450
Where: Europe
Significance: allowed printing to become easier and more books to be printed. The Bible was the first printed book with movable type, completed in 1456.
William Shakespeare
(1564-1616) English dramatist and poet who lived during the Elizabethan Age; considered one of the greatest writers in the English Language; among other things he wrote Hamlet, Romeo and Juliet, Othello, Twelfth Night, and Richard III
Church of England
also known as the Anglican church, this church was created in England by King Henry VIII when the Pope refused to let Henry divorce his wife; the Church of England allows divorce
Martin Luther
a German monk who became one of the most famous critics of the Roman Catholic Chruch. In 1517, he wrote 95 theses, or statements of belief attacking the church practices.
The Elizabethan Age
the period of time during which the Renaissance spread to England; at this time (mid-1500s) Queen Elizabeth I was Queen of England and she did much to support the development of English art and literature during this time of English Renaissance
Spanish Inquisition
a process of religious "purification" in Spain that began under the rule of King Ferdinand & Queen Isabella in 1480 and lasted over 350 years; the goal of this process was to expel from Spain, imprison, or kill anyone who was not Catholic, especially Jews and Muslims; later used in countries ruled by Spain to fight Protestantism
a person who believes something that goes against his or her religious doctrine
a belief or set of beliefs held and taught by a church, political party, or other group
Galileo Galilei
(1564-1642) an Italian physicist, mathematician, astronomer, and philosopher who played a major role in the Scientific Revolution; called "the Father of Modern Science;" the first person to use a telescope to study the stars
Sir Isaac Newton
(1643-1727) an English physicist, mathematician, astronomer, and philosopher; believed to be one of the greatest figures of the Scientific Revolution; in 1687 he published his theory of gravity and the three laws of motion, laying the groundwork for classical mechanics
scientific thought
a way of thinking that involves making observations, using evidence to draw conclusions, being skeptical about ideas, and being open to change when new discoveries are made
Triangle Trade
a transatlantic trade between Europe, Africa, and the Americas; America sent raw materials to England; England sent manufactured products to Africa; Africa sent slaves to America and the West Indies
Columbian Exchange
the exchange of plants, animals, diseases, and technologies between the Americas and the rest of the world following Columbus's voyages
Scientific Revolution
a major change in European thought, starting in the mid-1500s, in which the study of the natural world began to be characterized by careful observation and the questioning of accepted beliefs
human reason
the human ability to think and grow in our understandings of the truth; with this ability, scholars believe humans could achieve knowledge, happiness, and freedom
qualities that make one person or thing different from others
John Locke
(1632-1704) English philosopher who advocated the idea of a "social contract" in which government powers are derived from the consent of the people it serves; he said that people have natural rights to life, liberty and property
a form of government in which citizens choose their leaders by voting
a form of government in which the ruler is an absolute dictator (not restricted by a constitution, laws, or opposition)
representative democracy
a system of government in which citizens elect representatives, or leaders, to make decisions about the laws for all the people
natural rights
rights that belong to all human beings from birth
separation of powers
the division of power among the legislative, executive, and judicial branches of government
English Bill of Rights
a document that created a limited monarchy in England; it was accepted by King William and Queen Mary in 1689; it guaranteed certain rights to English citizens and declared that elections for Parliament would happen frequently
religious freedom
the ability to choose which religion to practice, to change which religion you practice, or to practice no religion at all
divine right
the theory that God gives rulers (kings) their right to rule
people who were not part of the nobility or the church
the right to vote
a dynasty that ruled much of the Muslim Empire from 750 CE to 1258 CE
absolute monarch
a king or queen who has unlimited power and seeks to control all aspects of society
Silk Roads
a system of ancient caravan routes across Central Asia, along which traders carried silk and other trade goods
meaning "way of the gods," it is Japan's earliest religion and was based on respect for the forces of nature and on the worship of ancestors
Kublai Khan
a Mongol leader who became one of China's great emperors, uniting the country for the first time in 300 years; he founded the Yuan dynasty in China, opened China up to greater foreign trade, tolerated Chinese culture, and made few changes to the system of government
in Japanese it means "one who serves;" loyal warriors in Japan who lived by a code of honor called Bushido that values endurance, cunning, physical strength, courage, and loyalty to their daimyo (the one who employs them); will commit ritual suicide rather than face defeat or dishonor; fight for a daimyo in exchange for an allowance
loyal warriors in Europe who lived by a code of honor called chivalry that values bravery and loyalty to God, their lord (the one who employs them), and a chosen lady; fight for a lord in exchange for land
the Arabic word for God
a collection of sacred writings produced by the Aryans during an early stage of their settlement in India
an Indo-European people who, in about 1500 BCE, began to migrate into the Indian subcontinent
a pipeline or channel built to carry water to populated areas
a government in which power is in the hands of a hereditary ruling class or nobility
a human-made object, such as a tool, a weapon, or a piece of jewelry